lymphoma in canines and felines
Lymphoma or its other name lymphosarcoma is cancer of the lymph system which is a network of lymph vessels and lymph nodes. The lymph system is part of the immune system where foreign bodies and disease organisms are presented to the lymph cells. Chemotherapy is often effective in treating lymphoma (lymphosarcoma).Lymphosarcoma (lymphoma) is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in cats. An article from the University of Pennsylvania vet research says that "The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) has been shown to cause lymphosarcoma in cats. We believe that the feline leukemia virus is responsible for many of the cases of lymphosarcoma. Cats with the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are also at higher risk of developing lymphosarcoma. Cats of any age, breed and sex can be affected. We typically see lymphosarcoma in younger cats that are infected with the feline leukemia virus, and in older cats that are not infected with the virus."
In another article focussing on lymphoma ( lymphosarcoma) in dogs, "Lymphosarcoma (lymphoma) is the third most common cancer diagnosed in dogs.....The average dog with lymphosarcoma is between 6-9 years although dogs of any age can be affected. Certain breeds (Boxer, German Shepherd, Golden Retrievers, Scotties, Westies and Pointers) may be more likely to develop this type of cancer. Males and females are equally at risk. In most cases, we cannot tell what causes lymphosarcoma."Dr.Foster's and Smith's Pet Education article says "There is no breed or sex predilection for cats that develop feline lymphoma. In the past, the average age of cats diagnosed with lymphoma was about 5 years. More recently, the average age has steadily risen to 9 - 10 years. The reason for the increase in age is that more cats are being tested and vaccinated for feline leukemia and have limited exposure to potentially infected cats. As a result, the incidence of feline leukemia (and thus lymphoma) in young cats has decreased. Cats who are not infected with FeLV generally develop lymphoma when they are much older. Thus the average age of affected cats is increasing."
  • J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2004 Jul-Aug;40(4):292-9. : Carmustine, vincristine, and prednisone in the treatment of canine lymphosarcoma.
    Ricci Lucas SR, Pereira Coelho BM, Marquezi ML, Franchini ML, Miyashiro SI, De Benedetto Pozzi DH.
    Faculdade de Medicina, Veterinaria e Zootecnia, (Lucas, Coelho, Marquezi, Franchini, Miyashiro) and Faculdade de Medicina, da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    A chemotherapeutic protocol using carmustine in combination with vincristine and prednisone was tested in dogs with multicentric malignant lymphosarcoma. Of seven dogs treated, six (85.7%) achieved complete remission. A partial response occurred in one dog. Median survival time was 224 days (mean 386 days), and median duration of remission was 183 days (mean 323 days). Marked neutropenia was observed following carmustine administration. There were no significant alterations in platelets and red blood cell counts during treatment, and no abnormalities attributable to the chemotherapy were found in serum biochemical profiles. Results of this study showed that carmustine is an effective alternative option in the treatment of canine lymphosarcoma
  • J Feline Med Surg. 2004 Aug;6(4):245-57. : Investigation of nasal disease in the cat--a retrospective study of 77 cases.
    Henderson SM, Bradley K, Day MJ, Tasker S, Caney SM, Hotston Moore A, Gruffydd-Jones TJ.
    University of Bristol, Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Division of Companion Animals, Langford House, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK.
    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of different diseases in cats referred for investigation of chronic nasal disease, to identify historical, clinical and diagnostic features which may assist in making a diagnosis, and to provide information pertaining to outcome in these cats. Diagnoses included neoplasia (30 cases), chronic rhinitis (27), foreign body (8), nasopharyngeal stenosis (5), Actinomyces infection (2), nasal polyps (2), stenotic nares (2), and rhinitis subsequent to trauma (1). The most common neoplasia was lymphosarcoma (21 cases), with a median survival of 98 days for cats treated with multiagent chemotherapy. Cats with neoplasia were older on average than the other cats, and were more likely to be dyspnoeic and have a haemorrhagic and/or unilateral nasal discharge than cats with chronic rhinitis. Cats with neoplasia were more likely to have radiographic evidence of nasal turbinate destruction, septal changes, or severe increases in soft tissue density than cats with chronic rhinitis. It was unusual for cats with diseases other than neoplasia to be euthanased as a result of their nasal disease.
  • Can Vet J. 2004 Jul;45(7):610-2. : Alimentary lymphosarcoma in a 4-year-old Labrador retriever.
    Lowe AD.
    Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1.

    Lymphosarcoma, a common canine hematopoietic neoplasm, occurs in multicentric, alimentary, mediastinal, and extranodal forms. Alimentary lymphoma accounts for approximately 5% of cases and is less easily diagnosed than the more common multicentric form. Chemotherapy is often effective, but recent therapeutic advances hold great promise for success in treating canine lymphoma. A 4-year-old, black Labrador retriever was presented (day 1) with a 2-day history of vomiting, polyuria/polydipsia, lethargy, and anorexia. The heart and respiratory rates were within normal limits, and the rectal temperature was 38.9 degrees C. Abdominal splinting was noted on palpation, which elicited urination. No obvious additional abnormalities were detected.
  • J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2003 Sep-Oct;39(5):468-72. : Primary intratracheal lymphosarcoma in four cats.
    Brown MR, Rogers KS, Mansell KJ, Barton C.
    Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4474, USA.

    Four cats presented with clinical signs suggestive of respiratory disease, including dyspnea, wheezing, cyanosis, inspiratory stridor, coughing, and gagging. Radiographs revealed intratracheal masses. Bronchoscopy allowed for lesion localization and collection of samples for cytopathological and histopathological evaluation, which confirmed a diagnosis of lymphosarcoma. Cats treated with systemic chemotherapy or radiation were able to achieve complete remission and long-term resolution of clinical signs
  • Canine and Feline Lymphoma:
    Review of Prognostic Factors and Treatment Options

  • Chemotherapy with Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, and Prednisolone (COP) in Cats with Malignant Lymphoma: New Results with an Old Protocol J Vet Intern Med 16[2]:179-186 Mar-Apr'02 Retrospective Study 31 Refs
    * Erik Teske, Giora van Straten, Ronald van Noort, Gerard R. Rutteman
    * Dept of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.125, Utrecht, The Netherlands;
    e-mail: This retrospective study in 61 cats with malignant lymphomas examined the efficacy of a well-established chemotherapy protocol (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone [COP]) in the Netherlands, a country with a low prevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Twenty-two cats (36.1%) had mediastinal lymphoma, 11 (18.0%) had alimentary lymphoma, 7 (11.5%) had peripheral lymphoma, 8 (13.1%) had nasal lymphoma, and 13 (21.3%) had miscellaneous lymphoma (including renal lymphoma in 2 (3.3%). Of the 54 cats that were tested, only 4 (7.4%) were FeLV positive. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 46 of the 61 cats (75.4%). The estimated 1- and 2-year disease-free periods (DFPs) in the 46 cats with CR were 51.4 and 37.8%, respectively, whereas the median duration of remission was 251 days. The overall estimated 1-year survival rate in all cats was 48.7%, and the 2-year survival rate was 39.9%, with a median survival of 266 days. The median survival time and the 1-year survival rate for mediastinal lymphoma were 262 days and 49.4%, respectively. Siamese cats had a more favorable prognosis for survival and remission than other breeds. Response to therapy in this study was shown to be a significant prognostic indicator. CR is necessary for long-term survival. Cats that did not achieve CR had little chance of survival for longer than 1 year. Young Siamese cats in this study had a greater tendency to develop mediastinal malignant lymphoma at a young age, and all were FeLV negative. In comparison with results reported in other studies with different combination chemotherapy protocols, these are among the highest percentages of remission and the longest survival rates for cats with malignant lymphoma.
  • Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. 2003 May;18(2):98-102.: Principles of treatment for feline lymphoma.
    Ettinger SN.
    Animal Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

    Lymphoma is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in cats. As feline leukemia virus antigenemia has decreased over the past 15 years, there has been a profound shift in the presence, signalment, and frequency of sites of feline lymphoma in North America. There is variation in anatomic classification systems, but most studies have divided lymphoma into four groups: alimentary, mediastinal, multicentric, or extranodal. Clinical signs and common differential diagnoses for each of the forms are described. Staging allows for evaluation of the extent of disease. As in the dog, lymphoma is a systemic disease in the cat, and chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for most forms. Exceptions are described. In contrast to canine lymphoma, feline lymphoma is generally more challenging and frustrating to treat than canine lymphoma. Response rates are lower, and remission duration is shorter. Fortunately, cats treated with chemotherapy tend to have less toxicity than dogs. Positive prognostic factors are feline leukemia virus-negative, clinically well at time of diagnosis, and response to therapy. Achieving a complete remission is prognostic for survival. Unfortunately, response cannot be predicted before treatment.
    Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. 2003 May;18(2):92-7.: Principles of treatment for canine lymphoma.
    Ettinger SN
    . Animal Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

    Canine lymphoma is one of the most commonly diagnosed canine neoplasms. It is helpful to classify lymphoma anatomically, because these forms each have common histories and clinical signs. Anatomic forms include multicentric, alimentary, mediastinal, and cutaneous forms. Because lymphoma is a systemic disease, systemic chemotherapy is the most appropriate modality for its treatment. Lymphoma cells are sensitive to chemotherapy, and complete remission rates are high when these patients are treated with conventional chemotherapy. Treated dogs maintain a good quality of life, and treatment can provide resolution of many presenting signs and abnormalities. The fundamental goals of chemotherapy are to induce a durable remission and to re-induce a remission after one or more relapses. Other therapies, such as surgery and radiation therapy, are appropriate in certain situations. Prognostic factors will also be summarized.

    Can Vet J. 2004 Jul;45(7):610-2. : Alimentary lymphosarcoma in a 4-year-old Labrador retriever.
    Lowe AD.
    Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1.

    Lymphosarcoma, a common canine hematopoietic neoplasm, occurs in multicentric, alimentary, mediastinal, and extranodal forms. Alimentary lymphoma accounts for approximately 5% of cases and is less easily diagnosed than the more common multicentric form. Chemotherapy is often effective, but recent therapeutic advances hold great promise for success in treating canine lymphoma. A 4-year-old, black Labrador retriever was presented (day 1) with a 2-day history of vomiting, polyuria/polydipsia, lethargy, and anorexia. The heart and respiratory rates were within normal limits, and the rectal temperature was 38.9 degrees C. Abdominal splinting was noted on palpation, which elicited urination. No obvious additional abnormalities were detected.

    Vet J. 2004 Mar;167(2):158-66.: Comment in: Vet J. 2004 Mar;167(2):125-6.
    Prognostic significance of morphological subtypes in canine malignant lymphomas during chemotherapy.
    Ponce F, Magnol JP, Ledieu D, Marchal T, Turinelli V, Chalvet-Monfray K, Fournel-Fleury C.
    Hematology-Cytology-Immunology Laboratory, Departement des Animaux de Compagnie, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 Avenue Bourgelat, B.P. 83, Marcy L'Etoile 69280, France.

    The aim of this study was to determine the response of different morphological subtypes of canine lymphoma to a standardized therapeutic protocol. Diagnosis of lymphoma was based on cytohistological analysis and immunophenotyping with antibodies against CD3 and CD79a of an enlarged lymph node or an extranodal mass. Fifty-seven cases were classified according to the updated Kiel classification adapted to the canine species, into 24 B-cell lymphomas (20 centroblastic polymorphic and four Burkitt-type subtypes), and 33 T-cell lymphomas (10 pleomorphic mixed, 10 lymphoblastic, eight unclassifiable high grade plasmacytoid, and five small clear-cell subtypes). All dogs were clinically staged at diagnosis. The protocol used l-asparaginase, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone. First remission duration and overall survival time were evaluated. Although the T-cell phenotype was associated, on the whole, with a poor prognosis, as previously reported in veterinary and human medicine, the study showed significant prognostic differences between the B- and the T-cell subtypes of canine lymphoma and suggests that clinico-morphological characterization of the disease is justified in dogs, as in humans.
    J Comp Pathol. 2004 Feb-Apr;130(2-3):220-2. : The possible prognostic significance of immunophenotype in feline alimentary lymphoma: a pilot study.
    Patterson-Kane JC, Kugler BP, Francis K.
    Department of Pathology and Infectious Diseases, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK.

    Twenty-three retrospective biopsy specimens from feline intra-abdominal lymphomas including tumours affecting the gastrointestinal tract, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen were immunohistochemically labelled with monoclonal antibodies to CD79a (B-cell phenotype) and CD3 (T-cell phenotype). Positive labelling occurred in 15 (65%) and 6 (26%) of the tumours, respectively. No statistically significant relationship was found between tumour cell immunophenotype and age, breed, or gender. There was no significant difference in survival time between the two immunophenotypes, based on the 16 cats for which this information was available.
    1: J Comp Pathol. 2004 Feb-Apr;130(2-3):152-61. : An immunohistochemical investigation of 18 cases of feline nasal lymphoma.
    Day MJ, Henderson SM, Belshaw Z, Bacon NJ.
    Division of Veterinery Pathology, School of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford House, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK.

    This report details clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in 18 cats with chronic nasal disease diagnosed as nasal lymphoma. Eight of the cats were female and 10 were male, with a median age of 10.5 years (range 7-14 years). Three of the cats were Siamese, one was Burmese, and the rest were non-pedigree. The duration of clinical signs before referral ranged from 30 to 540 days (median 88.5 days). The most common clinical signs were nasal discharge, stertor and sneezing. Nasal radiographs were abnormal in 14/16 cases examined. Abnormal masses were detected endoscopically in 13/18 cases. Nine cats received multi-agent chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or both, with survival times ranging from 14 to >541 days. Biopsy material from these 18 cats was examined by light microscopy, and serial sections were subjected to immunohistochemical labelling for the T lymphocyte marker CD3 and the B lymphocyte marker CD79a. In 13 tissues, expression of class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex and the myelomonocytic antigen MAC387 was also determined. Twelve of the tumours were classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, four as lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas, and one as a follicular B-cell lymphoma. The tumour cells within these lesions all expressed CD79a, and (where tested) most also expressed MHC class II. One tumour was an anaplastic large cell neoplasm, in which the neoplastic cells expressed MHC class II alone in the absence of either lymphoid marker. There was a variable infiltration of reactive small T lymphocytes into these tumours, and zones of necrosis within the tumour tissue were sometimes heavily infiltrated by MAC387+ phagocytic cells.
  • feline lymphoma
  • Feline Lymphoma and Leukemias E. Gregory MacEwen
    The mean age neoplastic development is reported to range from 2 to 6 years.5,6 In one study, males were at greater risk, and in another study females were reported to have a greater risk.7,8
  • Association between canine malignant lymphoma, living in industrial areas, and use of chemicals by dog owners.
    A case-control study was carried out to determine whether residential exposure to environmental pollutants increased risk for canine lymphoma in pet dogs. One hundred one cases with cytologically or histologically confirmed lymphoma diagnosed at a veterinary teaching hospital between the middle of 1996 and the middle of 1998 were examined. Controls were obtained by choosing twice the number of dogs without neoplastic disease, with overlapping distributions of province of residence, age, sex, and breed. Information regarding animal management, residence type, professional or hobby use of chemicals by owners, and treatment with herbicides or other pesticides in the area frequently visited by the dogs was obtained with a multiple-choice questionnaire by telephone interview. Two variables were positively and independently associated with the disease, namely residency in industrial areas (odds ratio [OR]; = 8.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-30.9) and use of chemicals by owners, specifically paints or solvents (OR = 4.6; 95% CI, 1.7-12.6). A significantly lower value of the mean age of disease onset was found in the group of dogs at risk in comparison with the group of all other dogs (6.1 +/- 0.4 years, n = 36 versus 7.5 +/- 0.4 years, n = 65, respectively; P = .008). Variables describing animal care and pesticide use were either not associated with the disease or were uninformative. We suggest that canine lymphoma may be considered a sentinel of potentially hazardous situations for humans, because of the relatively short latency between exposure and disease onset.
  • J Vet Intern Med. 2003 Nov-Dec;17(6):850-9. : Feline intracranial neoplasia: retrospective review of 160 cases (1985-2001).
    Troxel MT, Vite CH, Van Winkle TJ, Newton AL, Tiches D, Dayrell-Hart B, Kapatkin AS, Shofer FS, Steinberg SA.
    Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of different tumor types within a large cohort of cats with intracranial neoplasia and to attempt to correlate signalment, tumor size and location, and survival time for each tumor. Medical records of 160 cats with confirmed intracranial neoplasia evaluated between 1985 and 2001 were reviewed. Parameters evaluated included age, sex, breed, FeLV/FIV status, clinical signs, duration of signs, number of tumors, tumor location(s), imaging results, treatment, survival times, and histopathologic diagnosis. Most of the cats were older (11.3 +/- 3.8 years). Primary tumors accounted for 70.6% of cases. Metastasis and direct extension of secondary tumors accounted for only 5.6 and 3.8% of cases, respectively. Twelve cats (7.5%) had 2 or more discrete tumors of the same type, whereas 16 cats (10.0%) had 2 different types of intracranial tumors. The most common tumor types were meningioma (n = 93, 58.1%), lymphoma (n = 23, 14.4%), pituitary tumors (n = 14, 8.8%), and gliomas (n = 12, 7.5%). The most common neurological signs were altered consciousness (n = 42, 26.2%), circling (n = 36, 22.5%), and seizures (n = 36, 22.5%). Cats without specific neurological signs were common (n = 34, 21.2%). The tumor was considered an incidental finding in 30 (18.8%) cats. In addition to expected relationships (eg, meninges and meningioma, pituitary and pituitary tumors), we found that lesion location was predictive of tumor type with diffuse cerebral or brainstem involvement predictive of lymphoma and third ventricle involvement predictive of meningioma.
  • Risk factors for sterile hemorrhagic cystitis in dogs with lymphoma receiving cyclophosphamide with or without concurrent administration of furosemide: 216 cases (1990–1996)
    S C. Charney,P J. Bergman, A E. Hohenhaus, J A. McKnight
    Donaldson-Atwood Cancer Clinic, Dep of Med, The Animal Med Center, 510 E 62nd St, New York, NY 10021
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1388–1393
    Objectives—To determine incidence and identify predisposing factors for sterile hemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) in dogs with lymphoma that were treated with cyclophosphamide and to evaluate whether furosemide administered IV concurrently with cyclophosphamide decreased the incidence of SHC.Design—Retrospective study.Animals—216 dogs with lymphoma.Procedure—Medical records of dogs with lymphoma that received cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in accordance with 1 of 2 protocols, with or without concurrent IV administration of furosemide, were examined. Data for the 2 groups were analyzed to determine the incidence and predisposing factors (age, breed, sex, weight, previous or preexisting disease, previous or preexisting urinary tract infection, neutropenia, azotemia, dose, and number of cyclophosphamide treatments) for cyclophosphamide-associated SHC. Results—Cyclophosphamide-associated SHC developed in 12 of 133 (9%) dogs that had not received concurrent administration of furosemide and cyclophosphamide treatments; of the 83 dogs that had received furosemide, only 1 (1.2%) developed SHC. Dogs receiving cyclophosphamide and furosemide concurrently were significantly less likely to develop SHC than dogs that did not receive furosemide. Dogs with previous or preexisting immune-mediated disease were significantly more likely to develop cyclophosphamide-associated SHC.
    Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of results suggested an association between IV administration of furosemide concurrently with cyclophosphamide and decreased incidence of cyclophosphamide-associated SHC. Incidence of cyclophosphamide-associated SHC was similar in treated dogs that did not receive concurrent furosemide to that observed for other studies in which cyclophosphamide was administered orally. Cyclophosphamide-associated SHC appeared to develop early during the course of chemotherapy when furosemide was not administered concurrently with cyclophosphamide.
  • Antiangiogenic Therapy for Canine Cancers
    "Cancers in dogs depend on angiogenesis to survive and proliferate. Tumors create new blood vessels that supply them with oxygen and nutrients, allowing them to grow in size and spread throughout the body. Antiangiogenic therapy cuts off these new blood vessels, effectively starving tumors and preventing their growth. Cancers may be controlled with effective doses of antiangiogenic drugs"....The Foundation has also tested drugs that are already FDA-approved and available for angiogenesis inhibitory properties, and hopes to develop practical antiangiogenic treatments based on drug availability. One approach, known as the 'Navy Protocol' (OLCAT-007), uses COX-2 inhibitors along with inhibitors of blood vessel cell proliferation and invasion. The Navy protocol was named after a 2-year-old golden retriever who was the first canine cancer patient to be successfully treated with antiangiogenic therapy. So far, more than one dozen dogs have received the Navy protocol. The Foundation is working with the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo and other leading institutions to study these protocols....The drug company Bayer has tested an antiangiogenic pill called Tanomastat (Bay 12,9566) in dogs with lymphoma.
  • J Vet Intern Med 2002 Nov-Dec;16(6):704-9 : Evaluation of a 6-month chemotherapy protocol with no maintenance therapy for dogs with lymphoma.
    Garrett LD, Thamm DH, Chun R, Dudley R, Vail DM. Kansas State University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, USA.

    The purpose of this study was to compare a maintenance-free chemotherapy protocol based on CHOP (H from hydroxydaunorubicin = doxorubicin, O from Oncovin = vincristine) to a similar protocol with a maintenance phase for the treatment of canine lymphoma. Fifty-three dogs with multicentric lymphoma were treated with a 6-month modified version of the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison chemotherapy protocol (UW-25). Disease-free interval (DFI) and survival were compared to a historical control group of 55 dogs treated with a similar protocol with a prolonged maintenance phase. Remission rate for the study dogs was 94.2% (complete remission = 92.3%, partial remission = 1.9%). DFI and survival between the 2 groups did not differ significantly, with median DFI and survival of the study dogs equal to 282 and 397 days compared to 220 and 303 days for the control dogs (P = .2835 and .3365, respectively). Univariate analysis identified substage b (P = .0087), German Shepherd breed (P = .0199), and body weight > 18 kg (P = .0016) as significant for worse survival. Longer survival was associated with thrombocytopenia (P = .0436). Multivariate analysis revealed that substage (P = .0388) and weight (P = .0125) retained significance for DFI, whereas substage (P = .0093), thrombocytopenia (P = .0150), and weight (P = 0 .0050) retained significance for survival. Overall, the protocol was well tolerated by the dogs, with 41.5% (22/53) requiring a treatment delay or dose modification, but only 9.4% (5/53) needing hospitalization. The 6-month chemotherapy protocol based on CHOP with no maintenance phase provides similar DFI and survival times when compared to a similar protocol with a prolonged maintenance phase.
  • chemotherapy
    cats and dogs..a lot of information
    Although a bit bias :-) written by personal injury laywer, sadly interesting
    ""Cancer of the white blood cells, most commonly diagnosed as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, accounts for 90% of all lymphomas. It is the second most common cancer in the U.S. Closely associated with lymphoma are are chlorinated organic solvents, including chlorophenols, dioxins, PCBs, DDT, and the phenoxy herbicides," e.g. 2,4,5-T, and 2,4-D which are popular weed killers sold as Weed-B-Gone, Weedone, Miracle, Demise, Lawn-Keep, Raid Weed, Killer, Plantgard, Hormotox, and and Ded-Weed.
    Of 99 human studies, 75 indicate a significant connection between exposure to pesticides and lymphomas. Twenty-four show no relationship. One study of pet dogs indicates that exposure to 2,4-D, doubles a dog's chances of cancer. While the carcinogenicity of these products is not scientifically established, limiting exposure to pesticides makes good sense
  • University of Penn
    "Lymphosarcoma (lymphoma) is the third most common cancer diagnosed in dogs. It is a cancer of lymphocytes (a type of blood cell) and lymphoid tissues. Lymphoid tissue is normally present in many places in the body including lymph nodes, spleen, liver, gastrointestinal tract and bone marrow. The average dog with lymphosarcoma is between 6-9 years although dogs of any age can be affected. Certain breeds (Boxer, German Shepherd, Golden Retrievers, Scotties, Westies and Pointers) may be more likely to develop this type of cancer. Males and females are equally at risk. In most cases, we cannot tell what causes lymphosarcoma.....the average remission time is usually around 8-10 months with an overall survival time of about 1 year. Unfortunately, the chances of obtaining a second remission are lower and the risk of side effects may be higher. However, there are some dogs that do respond and have extra time. "
  • Genetics of Cancer
    Jaime F. Modiano, PhD
    Center for Cancer Causation and Prevention, AMC Cancer Research Center
    The term cancer refers to a large number of diseases whose only common feature is uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation. Cancer can affect any dog of any breed at any age; however, there appears to be a predisposition among certain breeds or families of dogs to develop specific types of cancer. Among these, lymphoma and leukemia (cancers of white blood cells) seem to be especially common in Golden Retrievers and Boxers, melanoma (cancer of pigmented cells responsible for skin coloring) is seen often in Irish and Gordon Setters, Standard and Miniature Schnauzers, Doberman Pinschers, and Scottish Terriers, and osteosarcoma (cancer of the bone) occurs commonly in Rottweilers and many other giant breeds. The clustering of specific cancers in breeds and families suggests that a hereditary component may be important in the development or progression of the disease.
  • Beaconforhealth cancer Linda Aronson, DVM
    "Lymphoma in dogs generally affects many if not all the lymph nodes. However, more than 80% of cases go into remission, with around a third of these living two or three years on maintenance therapy. Spayed females live longer than intact bitches. The choice of chemotherapeutic agents is very important to the outcome for this disease. Treating with corticosteroids (e.g., prednisone) prior to diagnosis can destroy cancer cells, so that the extent of the disease is not fully appreciated. More seriously, they can select for resistant cells bearing the multiple drug resistance gene which are immune to the effects of several chemically unrelated cancer drugs - doxorubicin, vincristine, actinomycin 1. All of these drugs can induce resistance, and ultimately decrease overall survival time, although improving the dog's condition in the meantime. Treating with prednisone alone, the average prognosis is two months; with COP (Cytoxan - cyclophosphamide*; Oncovin - vincristine and prednisone) this increases to 4 to 6 months. The multidrug protocol, using Adriamycin (doxorubicin) and/or L-asparagine as well as COP increases the prognosis to 12 months with the possibility of two year's remission. To maintain remission, dogs may be given cyclophosphamide and Leukeran (chlorambucil) possibly alternating with oral vincristine. Routine lymph node inspections should be performed together with blood counts to monitor bone marrow suppression. * Cyclophosphamide can cause sterile hemorrhagic cystitis days to weeks after administration. Pretreatment with mesna can decrease the frequency and severity of the cystitis. "
    Lymphoma in cats can be related to the feline leukemia virus but there isn't any conclusive evidence that a viral cause exists for the dog. A possible genetic predisposition may exist though that could explain why this cancer is seen more in particular breeds. A very scary story is unfolding at the clinic where I work. We have seen at least four young Rottweilers with Lymphosarcoma that were only three to four years old!
    Active Grant No. 22101: Development of Anti-Canine IL-2R? Antibodies Using CpG
    Oligodesoxynucleotide Vaccination
    Stuart C. Helfand,DVM, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Sponsor: Nestle Purina Company, American Boxer Charitable Foundation, Golden Retriever Club of
    America, Golden Retriever Foundation
    This protocol could also be called, "the development of a magic bullet". Despite progress in treating canine
    lymphoma, most affected dogs eventually develop resistance to chemotherapy and succumb to their
    disease. In human medicine, a molecule on the surface of lymphoma cells, the subunit of the interleukin-2
    receptor (IL-2R?). Recently, antibodies have been developed to deliver cellular toxins or radioisotopes
    against the malignant lymphoma cells, a strategy aimed at overcoming drug resistance. This technique is a
    form of so called immunotherapy which is being widely pursued in the treatment of human cancer. Dr.
    Hefland has succeeded in isolating the IL-2R molecule in Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers and now
    proposes a method to develop antibodies against this molecule. These antibodies then could be tagged
    with an appropriate cellular toxin or radioisotope to specifically target only the malignant lymphoma cells.
    This could prove to be a powerful tool in both diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of canine lymphoma.
    3. In the area of canine and, in particular Boxer cancer, the Foundation is supporting a grant entitled "Heritable and Sporadic Genetic Lesions in Canine Lymphoma and Osteosarcoma" by Dr. Jaime Modiano, at the AMC Cancer Research Center. Lymphoma, a cancer of lymph glands, is among one of the most frequent malignant tumors occurring in Boxers, as well as many other breeds (accounting for approximately 20% of all canine tumors.) Osteosarcoma is the most common bone tumor in dogs. Previous work by Dr. Modiano has identified individual genes and larger regions within the genome that appear to be important in canine cancer. His project proposes to confirm the frequency and significance of these genetic anomalies, which may be heritable or sporadic, thus paving the way to apply this knowledge for clinical benefits by providing targets for treatment, and identify individuals at risk to develop these types of cancer or produce cancer-prone progeny.
  • Lymphosarcoma (Lymphoma)
    It is recognised that different dog breeds suffer from different types of tumour: giant breeds such as Bernese Mountain dog, Irish Wolfhound and Great Dane suffer a high incidence of bone tumour (osteosarcoma); German shepherds - haemangiosarcoma; Bull mastiffs - lymphosarcoma; Golden Retrievers - fibrosarcoma; Boxers (and probably Labrador Retrievers) - mast cell tumours; Flat-coated Retrievers - soft tissue sarcomas. The breed susceptibilities are striking and we believe are related to the high incidence of autosomal recessive diseases in dogs arising from selective breeding for desired traits.(remember english site)
  • chemotherapy in general
    Lomustine (CCNU) for the treatment of resistant lymphoma in dogs.
    Forty-three dogs with lymphoma that had relapsed or had failed to achieve complete remission to previous chemotherapy were treated with lomustine (1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea [CCNU]) at a dosage of 90-100 mg/m2 body surface area p.o. every 3 weeks. Durable complete or partial responses occurred in 11 dogs for a median of 86 days. The acutely dose-limiting toxicosis was neutropenia 7 days after administration, resulting in a recommended dosage of 90 mg/m2. Cumulative thrombocytopenia occurred in dogs receiving continued CCNU treatment, and a dose interval of 3 weeks may be too short for continued administration of this drug. Toxicoses evident as fever or central nervous system signs or renal damage were uncommon or rare. CCNU is effective in the treatment of relapsed lymphoma.
  • Prognostic variables in canine multicentric lymphosarcoma.
    "None of the variables examined had a statistically significant effect upon tumour response. Tumour immunophenotype was the only parameter found to have a significant influence on patient survival, the hazard ratio for T-cell versus B-cell immunophenotype was 3.99 with 95 per cent confidence interval from 1.399 to 11.372, P = 0.035."
    "treated with a standard chemotherapy protocol comprising vincristine, cyclophosphamide and prednisolone"
  • lymphoma
    J Vet Intern Med 2001 Jul-Aug;15(4):348-54 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Evaluation of a discontinuous treatment protocol (VELCAP-S) for canine lymphoma.
    Moore AS, Cotter SM, Rand WM, Wood CA, Williams LE, London CA, Frimberger AE, L'Heureux DA.
    Harrington Oncology Program, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA.
    Eighty-two dogs with lymphoma received a single 15-week course of chemotherapy, after which treatment was ceased until relapse. Fifty-six dogs (68%) achieved complete remission for a median 1st remission duration of 20 weeks. Forty-eight dogs relapsed, of which 30 repeated the induction cycle. In 22 of these dogs, 1st remission had been short, and they received maintenance chemotherapy; the other 8 dogs received 2 or 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy. Second remission rate for these 30 dogs was 87% (26 dogs). Overall disease control for the 38 dogs that remained on protocol was 44 weeks, which was not markedly shorter than for dogs treated with a previously reported protocol in which maintenance chemotherapy was instituted in all dogs after an identical 1st induction (VELCAP-L). Dogs that were febrile and dogs that were dyspneic were less likely to achieve a complete remission to induction chemotherapy. Of dogs that achieved a complete remission, those that were thrombocytopenic at entry had a shorter 1st remission, and dogs that were anorexic at entry had shorter overall disease control. There was a correlation between 1st remission duration and length of any subsequent remission obtained. The incidence of toxicity was high, particularly after the combination of doxorubicin and vincristine. Dose reductions because of toxicity did not markedly reduce remission duration. We conclude that discontinuous chemotherapy may reduce patient visits in a small number of patients because of long-term disease control. Delaying maintenance chemotherapy until after 2nd remission is achieved does not markedly affect overall disease control.
  • Factors influencing first remission and survival in 145 dogs with lymphoma: a retrospective study.
    "J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2000 Sep-Oct;36(5):404-9 Factors influencing first remission and survival in 145 dogs with lymphoma: a retrospective study.
    Baskin CR, Couto CG, Wittum TE.
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and Comprehensive Cancer Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210-1089, USA.
    Records of 145 dogs diagnosed with lymphoma were reviewed to evaluate for factors influencing duration of remission and survival. Dogs with histories of certain chronic inflammatory diseases were 3.23 times more likely to relapse (relative risk, 3.23) than the overall population. Dogs with World Health Organization (WHO) stage IV lymphoma or those treated with a protocol containing cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and sulfatrimethoprim (CHOP) had lower relative risks of relapse (0.32 and 0.085, respectively). Progressive disease after induction, gastrointestinal toxicity from induction, and clinical signs (i.e., substage b lymphoma) were associated with higher relative risks of death (3.5, 2.64, and 2.02, respectively)."
  • Treatment of canine lymphoma with COPLA/LVP.
    " J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2000 Sep-Oct;36(5):395-403 Treatment of canine lymphoma with COPLA/LVP.
    Boyce KL, Kitchell BE.

    Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Illinois, Urbana 61802, USA.
    Seventy-five dogs with cytopathologically or histopathologically confirmed lymphoma received L-asparaginase, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, prednisone, and doxorubicin (COPLA) induction followed by chlorambucil, vincristine, and prednisone (LVP) maintenance between January 1994 and June 1997. Toxicity was evaluated using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) toxicity criteria. Age, weight, sex, and response were evaluated for prognostic significance against first remission duration. A complete response (CR) was obtained in 61 (80%) dogs, a partial response (PR) was obtained in nine (12%) dogs, and no response (NR) was obtained in five (8%) dogs. The median first remission duration was 25 weeks, with 17% and 5% of the dogs in remission at one and two years, respectively. Observed toxicity was low, with 84% of dogs given an NCI score of 1 or 2. Median survival time for dogs achieving CR was 36 weeks versus four weeks for those achieving PR or NR."

  • A combination chemotherapy protocol (VELCAP-L) for dogs with lymphoma."A combination chemotherapy protocol (VELCAP-L) for dogs with lymphoma.
    Zemann BI, Moore AS, Rand WM, Mason G, Ruslander DM, Frimberger AE, Wood CA, L'Heureux DA, Gliatto J, Cotter SM.
    School of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.
    Ninety-eight dogs with lymphoma treated with a 5-drug combination chemotherapy regimen (vincristine, L-asparaginase, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, prednisone [VELCAP-L]) were evaluated for pretreatment characteristics predictive for response and remission duration. The complete remission rate was 69%, with a median remission duration of 55 weeks. Dogs with advanced stage of disease, constitutional signs, dogs that were older, and dogs that were dyspneic were less likely to achieve remission. Once in remission, small dogs and dogs without pretreatment thrombocytopenia were likely to have longer remission duration. Toxicoses were frequent, but rarely fatal, and no predictitive factors were found for a dog developing toxicoses. VELCAP-L is an effective treatment for dogs in stage I-III lymphoma, particularly in young, small animal"
  • Evaluation of a multidrug chemotherapy protocol (ACOPA II) in dogs with lymphoma." 1: J Vet Intern Med 1997 Nov-Dec;11(6):333-9
    Evaluation of a multidrug chemotherapy protocol (ACOPA II) in dogs with lymphoma.
    Myers NC 3rd, Moore AS, Rand WM, Gliatto J, Cotter SM.
    Department of Medicine, Foster Hospital for Small Animals, Tufts University, School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, USA.
    A chemotherapeutic protocol using cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, doxorubicin, and L-asparaginase (ACOPA II) was evaluated in dogs with lymphoma. The response rate for 68 dogs treated with ACOPA II (complete remission [CR] 65%, partial remission [PR] 10%) was lower than that for 41 dogs treated with a related protocol previously evaluated (ACOPA I; CR 76%, PR 12%). Initial treatment with doxorubicin and prednisone did not decrease the prevalence or severity of toxicity during induction. The mortality during induction was 22%. The median duration of CR for dogs treated with ACOPA II was 9 months, with 40% still in remission at 1 year and 21% at 2 years. The rate of CR was lower for dogs with signs of illness at presentation (substage b) and for dogs weighing less than 15 kg. Age was negatively correlated with survival time and duration of remission. Dogs with immunoblastic lymphoma had a more favorable prognosis than did those with lymphoblastic lymphoma. Survival times were also longer for dogs in substage a at presentation. Seven dogs in which treatment was discontinued while in remission had comparable remission duration to that achieved by dogs receiving long-term maintenance chemotherapy."

  • Effect of fish oil, arginine, and doxorubicin chemotherapy on remission and survival time for dogs with lymphoma: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. Ogilvie GK, Fettman MJ, Mallinckrodt CH, Walton JA, Hansen RA, Davenport DJ, Gross KL, Richardson KL, Rogers Q, Hand MS. Comparative Oncology Unit, Departments of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids have been shown to inhibit the growth and metastasis of tumors. This double-blind, randomized study was designed to evaluate the hypothesis that polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids can improve metabolic parameters, decrease chemical indices of inflammation, enhance quality of life, and extend disease free interval and survival time for dogs treated for lymphoblastic lymphoma with doxorubicin chemotherapy. METHODS: Thirty-two dogs with lymphoma were randomized to receive one of two diets supplemented with menhaden fish oil and arginine (experimental diet) or an otherwise identical diet supplemented with soybean oil (control diet). Diets were fed before and after remission was attained with up to five dosages of doxorubicin. Parameters examined included blood concentrations of glucose, lactic acid, and insulin in response to glucose and diet tolerance tests; alpha-1 acid glycoprotein; tumor necrosis factor; interleukin-6; body weight; amino acid profiles; resting energy expenditure; disease free interval (DFI); survival time (ST); and clinical performance scores. RESULTS: Dogs fed the experimental diet had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean serum levels of the n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) compared with controls. Higher serum levels of C22:6 and C20:5 were associated with lesser (P < 0.05) plasma lactic acid responses to intravenous glucose and diet tolerance testing. Increasing C22:6 levels were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with longer DFI and ST for dogs with Stage III lymphoma fed the experimental diet. CONCLUSIONS: Fatty acids of the n-3 series normalize elevated blood lactic acid in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in an increase in DFI and ST for dogs with lymphoma. Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.