There is a growing body of research on ginger which has been used by many cultures as folk medicine. The following contains articles on ginger on diabetes, ginger on motion sickness, ginger on nausea, ginger on nausea associated with pregnancy, ginger and cancer, ginger and hepatitis and more such as ginger and bacteria and fungii.
My friend drinks ginger tea as a detoxifier. She simply buys ginger root at the market and boils it in water. Does it pack a wallop! For children and dogs who aren't famous for traveling in cars, you can bring along ginger snaps...
rxbyfaxgood.gif 409x62

Life Sci. 2004 Apr 23;74(23):2889-96. : Inhibitory effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on rat ileal motility in vitro.
Borrelli F, Capasso R, Pinto A, Izzo AA.
Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, Via D. Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale rhizome) is a widespread herbal medicine mainly used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, including dyspepsia, nausea and diarrhoea. In the present study we evaluated the effect of this herbal remedy on the contractions induced by electrical stimulation (EFS) or acetylcholine in the isolated rat ileum. Ginger (0.01-1000 microg/ml) inhibited both EFS- and acetylcholine-evoked contractions, being more potent in inhibiting the contractions induced by EFS. The depressant effect of ginger on EFS-induced contractions was reduced by the vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (10(-5) M), but unaffected by the alpha(2)-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine (10(-7) M), the CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A (10(-6) M), the opioid antagonist naloxone (10(-6) M) or by the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (3 x 10(-4) M). Zingerone (up to 3 x 10(-4) M), one of the active ingredients of ginger, did not possess inhibitory effects. It is concluded that ginger possesses both prejunctional and postjunctional inhibitory effects on ileal contractility; the prejunctional inhibitory effect of ginger on enteric excitatory transmission could involve a capsazepine-sensible site (possibly vanilloid receptors).

J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Apr 7;52(7):1872-81. : Antioxidant evaluation in dessert spices compared with common food additives. Influence of irradiation procedure.
Murcia MA, Egea I, Romojaro F, Parras P, Jimenez AM, Martinez-Tome M.
Department of Food Science, Veterinary Faculty, Campus de Espinardo, University of Murcia, Apartado de Correos 4021, E-30008 Murcia, Spain.

The antioxidant properties of seven dessert spices (anise, cinnamon, ginger, licorice, mint, nutmeg, and vanilla) were compared with those of the common food antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (E-320), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (E-321), and propyl gallate (E-310). The influence of irradiation process on antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Mint and cinnamon exhibited a higher percentage of inhibition of oxidation than the other spices analyzed and the food antioxidants, as tested by the lipid peroxidation assay (LOO*). Nutmeg, anise, and licorice showed the strongest protection in the deoxyribose assay (OH*). Vanilla exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in the peroxidase-based assay (H2O2). Nutmeg, propyl gallate, ginger, and licorice improved the stability of oils (sunflower, corn, and olive) and fats (butter and margarine) against oxidation (110 degrees C Rancimat). Cinnamon was a better superoxide radical scavenger than the other analyzed spices and additives. When the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay was used to provide a ranking order of antioxidant activity, the result in decreasing order of antioxidant capacity was cinnamon approximately equal to propyl gallate > mint > anise > BHA > licorice approximately equal to vanilla > ginger > nutmeg > BHT. Irradiated samples did not show significant differences (p < 0.05) in the antioxidant activity with respect to the non-irradiated samples (1, 3, 5, and 10 kGy) in the assays used.

Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;103(4):639-45. : A randomized controlled trial of ginger to treat nausea and vomiting in pregnancy.
Smith C, Crowther C, Willson K, Hotham N, McMillian V.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. caroline.

OBJECTIVES: To estimate whether the use of ginger to treat nausea or vomiting in pregnancy is equivalent to pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6). METHODS: A randomized, controlled equivalence trial involving 291 women less than 16 weeks pregnant was undertaken at a teaching hospital in Australia. Women took 1.05 g of ginger or 75 mg of vitamin B6 daily for 3 weeks. Differences from baseline in nausea and vomiting scores were estimated for both groups at days 7, 14, and 21. RESULTS: Ginger was equivalent to vitamin B6 in reducing nausea (mean difference 0.2, 90% confidence interval [CI] -0.3, 0.8), retching (mean difference 0.3; 90% CI -0.0, 0.6) and vomiting (mean difference 0.5; 90% CI 0.0, 0.9), averaged over time, with no evidence of different effects at the 3 time points. CONCLUSION: For women looking for relief from their nausea, dry retching, and vomiting, the use of ginger in early pregnancy will reduce their symptoms to an equivalent extent as vitamin B6. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I

Am Fam Physician. 2004 Mar 1;69(5):1169-74. : Practical selection of antiemetics.
Flake ZA, Scalley RD, Bailey AG.
Fort Collins Family Medicine Residency Program, Fort Collins, Colorado 80524, USA.

An understanding of the pathophysiology of nausea and the mechanisms of antiemetics can help family physicians improve the cost-effectiveness and efficacy of therapy. Nausea and vomiting are mediated primarily by visceral stimulation through dopamine and serotonin, by vestibular and central nervous system causes through histamine and acetylcholine, and by chemoreceptor trigger zone stimulation through dopamine and serotonin. Treatment is directed at these pathways. Antihistamines and anticholinergic agents are most effective in patients with nausea resulting from vestibular and central nervous system causes. Dopamine antagonists block dopamine in the intestines and chemoreceptor trigger zone; indications for these agents are similar to those for serotonin antagonists. Serotonin antagonists block serotonin in the intestines and chemoreceptor trigger zone, and are most effective for treating gastrointestinal irritation and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Complementary and alternative therapies, such as ginger, acupressure, and vitamin B6, have variable effectiveness in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea.

1: Ann Pharmacother. 2004 Feb;38(2):257-60. Epub 2003 Dec 19. : Ginger-associated overanticoagulation by phenprocoumon.
Kruth P, Brosi E, Fux R, Morike K, Gleiter CH.
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany.

OBJECTIVE: To report a case of ginger-phenprocoumon interaction resulting in an elevated international normalized ratio (INR) and epistaxis. CASE SUMMARY: A 76-year-old white European woman on long-term phenprocoumon therapy with an INR within the therapeutic range began using ginger products. Several weeks later, she developed an elevated INR up to 10 and epistaxis. The INR returned to the normal range after ginger was stopped and vitamin K1 was given. DISCUSSION: There have been a number of investigations resulting in conflicting opinions on the effect of ginger on hemostasis, specifically, platelet inhibition. Nevertheless, based on these investigations, recommendations have been issued to refrain from ingesting ginger and other herbals like garlic or ginkgo biloba in situations where bleeding may be critical. An objective causality assessment revealed that the adverse drug event as a result of the phenprocoumon and ginger interaction was probable. CONCLUSIONS: As of writing, this was the first case report that may support an interaction between an oral anticoagulant and ginger together with a brief review of the literature on ginger and hemostasis. As this interaction was observed only by chance, this case highlights the importance of self-control of anticoagulation with coumarins particularly for the detection of unknown interactions.

J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Jan;56(1):101-5. : Anti-diabetic activity of Zingiber officinale in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats.
Akhani SP, Vishwakarma SL, Goyal RK.
Department of Pharmacology, L. M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad-380 009, India.

The fresh and dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (commonly known as ginger) is widely used in traditional medicine. We have studied the effect of the juice of Z. officinale (4 mL kg(-1), p.o. daily) for 6 weeks on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetic rats with particular reference to the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptors in glycaemic control. In normoglycaemic rats, 5-HT (1mg kg(-1), i.p.) produced hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia, which was significantly prevented by the juice of Z. officinale. STZ-diabetes produced a significant increase in fasting glucose levels that was associated with a significant decrease in serum insulin levels. Treatment with Z. officinale produced a significant increase in insulin levels and a decrease in fasting glucose levels in diabetic rats. In an oral glucose tolerance test, treatment with Z. officinale was found to decrease significantly the area under the curve of glucose and to increase the area under the curve of insulin in STZ-diabetic rats. Treatment with Z. officinale also caused a decrease in serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride and blood pressure in diabetic rats. Our data suggest a potential antidiabetic activity of the juice of Z. officinale in type I diabetic rats, possibly involving 5-HT receptors.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Dec;307(3):1098-103. Epub 2003 Oct 08. : Ginger reduces hyperglycemia-evoked gastric dysrhythmias in healthy humans: possible role of endogenous prostaglandins.
Gonlachanvit S, Chen YH, Hasler WL, Sun WM, Owyang C.
Division of Gastroenterology, 3912 Taubman Center, Box 0362, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Acute hyperglycemia evokes gastric slow wave dysrhythmias via endogenous prostaglandin generation. Ginger exhibits slow wave antiarrhythmic effects in other models, but its actions on hyperglycemia-evoked gastric dysrhythmias are unexplored. We hypothesized that ginger prevents disruption of slow wave rhythm by acute hyperglycemia via inhibition of prostaglandin production but not its actions. Twenty-two healthy humans underwent fasting electrogastrography during hyperglycemic clamping to 250 to 290 mg/dl after double-blind placebo or ginger root (1 g). Responses were compared with the prostaglandin E1 analog misoprostol (400 microg). Dominant frequencies (DF) and the percentage of recording times in the bradygastric [0.5-2 cycles/min (cpm)], normal (2-4 cpm), and tachygastric (4-9 cpm) frequency ranges were analyzed. After placebo, hyperglycemia reduced normal 2 to 4 cpm activity from 94.4 +/- 2.6 to 66.0 +/- 10.4%, increased the DF from 2.96 +/- 0.04 to 4.09 +/- 0.45 cpm, and increased tachygastria from 2.0 +/- 1.4 to 29.3 +/- 10.7% (P < 0.05). Hyperglycemia effects on normal activity (77.3 +/- 8.3%), DF (3.46 +/- 0.37 cpm), and tachygastria (15.6 +/- 8.6%) were significantly reduced by ginger (P < 0.05). Misoprostol evoked decreases in normal activity from 95.4 +/- 2.0 to 81.7 +/- 3.0% and increases in tachygastria from 3.1 +/- 1.6 to 11.2 +/- 2.4% (P < 0.05). However, ginger did not correct these abnormalities versus placebo (P = N.S.). In conclusion, acute hyperglycemia evokes gastric slow wave dysrhythmias that are prevented by ginger root. Conversely, the compound has no effect on dysrhythmias elicited by a prostaglandin E(1) analog, indicating that ginger likely acts to blunt production of prostaglandins rather than inhibiting their action. These findings suggest novel mechanisms for the traditional Chinese herbal remedy ginger

In Vivo. 2003 Nov-Dec;17(6):641-5. : Effects of 6-gingerol, an antioxidant from ginger, on inducing apoptosis in human leukemic HL-60 cells.
Wang CC, Chen LG, Lee LT, Yang LL.
Graduate Institute of Pharmacognosy Science, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan, R.O.C.

6-Gingerol, a naturally occurring plant phenol, is one of the major components of fresh ginger. In this paper, the antioxidative effects of 6-gingerol were detected by DPPH and DCFH assays and, as predicted, 6-gingerol as an antioxidant was shown to protect HL-60 cells from oxidative stress. Moreover, it induced cell death in promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells, caused DNA fragmentation and inhibited Bcl-2 expression in HL-60 cells. These results suggested that the inhibition of Bcl-2 expression in HL-60 cells might account for the mechanism of 6-gingerol-induced apoptosis. In the inhibitory assay, the cytotoxic effect of 6-gingerol could be prevented by catalase. We suggest that 6-gingerol induced cell death by mediating reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and the superoxide anion. Therefore, the results showed that 6-gingerol induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells, not due to its antioxidative activity

1: J Pharm Pharmacol. 2003 Nov;55(11):1553-9. : The in-vivo effects of sho-saiko-to, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on two cytochrome P450 enzymes (1A2 and 3A) and xanthine oxidase in man.
Saruwatari J, Nakagawa K, Shindo J, Nachi S, Echizen H, Ishizaki T.
Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Oe-honmachi 5-1, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan

The Chinese herbal medicine sho-saiko-to is a mixture of seven herbal components (Bupleurum root, Pinellia tuber, Scutellaria root, Jujube fruit, Ginseng root, Glycyrrhiza root and Ginger rhizome) that is widely administered to patients with chronic hepatitis in Japan. We assessed the effects of sho-saiko-to on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP3A and xanthine oxidase (XO) in man. Twenty-six healthy subjects were studied to evaluate their baseline activity of CYP1A2 and XO by the respective urinary metabolic ratios of an 8-h urine sample after an oral 150-mg dose of caffeine and of CYP3A by a urinary excretion ratio of 6beta-hydroxycortisol (6beta-HC) to free cortisol (FC). Thereafter, the subjects received a twice-daily 2.5-g dose of sho-saiko-to for five days, and underwent the caffeine test on day 1 and day 5. The mean activity of CYP1A2 decreased by 16% on both day 1 and day 5 compared with the baseline (P=0.001). The mean activity of XO also significantly decreased by 25% on day 1 and 20% on day 5 (P<0.0001) compared with the baseline value. The activity of CYP3A tended to be lower on day 5 than the baseline (P=0.146). It is concluded that sho-saiko-to reduces CYP1A2 and XO activity in man.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003 Nov;11(11):783-9. : The effects of Zintona EC (a ginger extract) on symptomatic gonarthritis.
Wigler I, Grotto I, Caspi D, Yaron M.
Department of Rheumatology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, and Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the effect of a ginger extract (Zintona EC) on patients suffering from gonarthritis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients (6 men and 23 women) with symptomatic gonarthritis (ACR criteria), in the age range 42-85 years, were included after randomization in a double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study of 6 months' duration. The treatment group was given a ginger extract (250 mg of Zingiberis Rhizoma per capsule, qid), while the placebo group received the same number of identical looking capsules per day. The crossover occurred after 3 months of therapy. Results were evaluated by a 100mm visual analog scale (VAS) of pain on movement and of handicap. RESULTS: Eight patients dropped out because of inefficacy, three from group 1 (ginger extract first) and five from group 2 (placebo first). One patient from group 1 and one from group 2 dropped out because of heartburn (while they were on ginger extract). Twenty patients completed the study period of 24 weeks and 19 that of 48 weeks follow-up. By the end of 24 weeks there was a highly statistically significant difference between the VAS of pain and handicap of the two groups (P<0.001). However, at crossover both groups showed a statistically significant decrease in VAS of pain on movement and of handicap, but the differences between the groups did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Zintona EC was as effective as placebo during the first 3 months of the study, but at the end of 6 months, 3 months after crossover, the ginger extract group showed a significant superiority over the placebo group.

Cancer Lett. 2003 Sep 25;199(2):113-9. : Dietary ginger constituents, galanals A and B, are potent apoptosis inducers in Human T lymphoma Jurkat cells.
Miyoshi N, Nakamura Y, Ueda Y, Abe M, Ozawa Y, Uchida K, Osawa T.
Laboratory of Food and Biodynamics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan.

The effects of the constituents isolated from ginger species including curcumin, 6-gingerol and labdane-type diterpene compounds on cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in the cultured human T lymphoma Jurkat cells were studied. Among the tested compounds, galanals A and B, isolated from the flower buds of a Japanese ginger, myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe), showed the most potent cytotoxic effect. Exposure of Jurkat human T-cell leukemia cells to galanals resulted in the induction of apoptotic cell death characterized by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. The mitochondrial damage pathway was suggested to be involved in galanal-induced apoptosis because the treatment of cells with galanals induced mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsim) alteration and cytochrome c release. The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was downregulated by the galanal treatment together with enhancement of the Bax expression. In conclusion, the results from this study provide biological evidence that ginger-specific constituents other than curcuminoids are potential anticancer agents

Anticancer Res. 2003 Sep-Oct;23(5A):3699-702. : Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and the gingerols inhibit the growth of Cag A+ strains of Helicobacter pylori.
Mahady GB, Pendland SL, Yun GS, Lu ZZ, Stoia A.
Department of Pharmacy Practice, UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research, PAHO/WHO Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 S. Wood St, MC 877, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

BACKGROUND: Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) has been used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments such as motion sickness, dyspepsia and hyperemesis gravidarum, and is also reported to have chemopreventative activity in animal models. The gingerols are a group of structurally related polyphenolic compounds isolated from ginger and known to be the active constituents. Since Helicobacter pylori (HP) is the primary etiological agent associated with dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease and the development of gastric and colon cancer, the anti-HP effects of ginger and its constituents were tested in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methanol extract of the dried powdered ginger rhizome, fractions of the extract and the isolated constituents, 6-,8-,10-gingerol and 6-shogoal, were tested against 19 strains of HP, including 5 CagA+ strains. RESULTS: The methanol extract of ginger rhizome inhibited the growth of all 19 strains in vitro with a minimum inhibitory concentration range of 6.25-50 micrograms/ml. One fraction of the crude extract, containing the gingerols, was active and inhibited the growth of all HP strains with an MIC range of 0.78 to 12.5 micrograms/ml and with significant activity against the CagA+ strains. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that ginger root extracts containing the gingerols inhibit the growth of H. pylori CagA+ strains in vitro and this activity may contribute to its chemopreventative effects.

Phytother Res. 2003 Sep;17(8):897-902. : Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of antifungal compounds from ginger.
Ficker C, Smith ML, Akpagana K, Gbeassor M, Zhang J, Durst T, Assabgui R, Arnason JT.
Ottawa-Carleton Institutes of Biology and Chemistry, Carleton University and University of Ottawa, Ottawa ON, Canada.

A bioassay-guided isolation of antifungal compounds from an African land race of ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, led to the identification of [6], [8] and [10]-gingerols and [6]-gingerdiol as the main antifungal principles. The compounds were active against 13 human pathogens at concentrations of <1 mg/mL. The gingerol content of the African land race was at least 3 x higher than that of typical commercial cultivars of ginger. Therefore, ginger extracts standardized on the basis of the identified compounds, could be considered as antifungal agents for practical therapy. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

1: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Mar;284(3):G481-9. : Effects of ginger on motion sickness and gastric slow-wave dysrhythmias induced by circular vection.
Lien HC, Sun WM, Chen YH, Kim H, Hasler W, Owyang C.
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology Taichung Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Ginger has long been used as an alternative medication to prevent motion sickness. The mechanism of its action, however, is unknown. We hypothesize that ginger ameliorates the nausea associated with motion sickness by preventing the development of gastric dysrhythmias and the elevation of plasma vasopressin. Thirteen volunteers with a history of motion sickness underwent circular vection, during which nausea (scored 0-3, i.e., none to severe), electrogastrographic recordings, and plasma vasopressin levels were assessed with or without ginger pretreatment in a crossover-design, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. Circular vection induced a maximal nausea score of 2.5 +/- 0.2 and increased tachygastric activity and plasma vasopressin. Pretreatment with ginger (1,000 and 2,000 mg) reduced the nausea, tachygastria, and plasma vasopressin. Ginger also prolonged the latency before nausea onset and shortened the recovery time after vection cessation. Intravenous vasopressin infusion at 0.1 and 0.2 U/min induced nausea and increased bradygastric activity; ginger pretreatment (2,000 mg) affected neither. Ginger effectively reduces nausea, tachygastric activity, and vasopressin release induced by circular vection. In this manner, ginger may act as a novel agent in the prevention and treatment of motion sickness.

Am Fam Physician. 2003 Jan 15;67(2):339-44. : Comment in: Am Fam Physician. 2003 Nov 1;68(9):1713; author reply 1713.
Alternative therapies for traditional disease states: osteoarthritis.
Morelli V, Naquin C, Weaver V.
Family Practice Residency Program, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Kenner, Louisiana 70065, USA.
Americans spend more on natural remedies for osteoarthritis than for any other medical condition. In treating osteoarthritis, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, two of the molecular building blocks found in articular cartilage, are the most commonly used alternative supplements. In randomized trials of variable quality, these compounds show efficacy in reducing symptoms, but neither has been shown to arrest progression of the disease or regenerate damaged cartilage. Although few clinical trials on S-adenosylmethionine exist, preliminary evidence indicates that it relieves pain to a degree similar to that of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs but with fewer side effects. Clinical trials of dimethyl sulfoxide offer conflicting results. Neither ginger nor cetyl myristoleate has proven clinical usefulness.

J Med Food. 2003 Winter;6(4):323-8. : Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) on decreasing the production of inflammatory mediators in sow osteoarthrotic cartilage explants.
Shen CL, Hong KJ, Kim SW.
Department of Pathology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA.

The herbal remedy Zingiber officinale (ginger root) has been used for perhaps thousands of years in the Far East to treat inflammatory diseases, including osteoarthritis. However, the anti-arthritic effect of ginger root has never been evaluated on osteoarthrotic cartilage of sow. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger root extract (GRE) on the viability and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) by sow osteoarthrotic cartilage explants. The cartilage explants (~20 mg/96-well plate) were grown in Ham's F-12/Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics for 72 hours and depleted for 24 hours. GRE was then added at different concentrations (0-2,000 microg/mL), and the explants were allowed to grow for 24 hours. The cell viability was reduced (P<.05) with GRE >/=500 microg/mL, whereas it was not affected with GRE <100 microg/mL. In a follow-up experiment, the supernatants of cartilage explants with GRE (0-500 microg/mL) in the presence of interleukin-1beta (2 ng/mL), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (1 ng/mL), and lipopolysaccharides (10 microg/mL) were used to measure NO and PGE production. Increasing GRE concentration (1-100 microg/mL) reduced (P <.05) NO production by cartilage tissue explants, and a similar pattern was observed in the production of PGE(2). The inhibitory effects of GRE on NO and PGE(2) production by sow osteoarthrotic cartilage explants observed in this study suggest an important role for GRE as an anti-arthritic agent in osteoarthrosis in the sow.

New Microbiol. 2003 Jan;26(1):115-20. Related Articles, Links Inhibitory activity of spices and essential oils on psychrotrophic bacteria. Fabio A, Corona A, Forte E, Quaglio P. Laboratorio di Microbiologia, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italia.
This study was designed to evaluate "in vitro" the inhibitory effects of spices and essential oils on the growth of psycrotrophic food-borne bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica. The sensitivity to nine spices and their oils (chilli, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, nutmeg, oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme) was studied. Antibacterial activity was evaluated on liquid and solid medium. Spices: 1% concentration of each spice was added separately to Triptic Soy Broth and then inoculated to contain 10(8)/ml organism and held to 4 degrees C for 7 days. Populations of test organism were determined on Triptic Soy Agar. Oils: Inhibition of growth was tested by using the paper disc agar diffusion method (at 35, 20 and 4 degrees C) and measuring their inhibition zone. MIC was determined by the broth microdilution method. Some culinary spices produce antibacterial activity: inhibition of growth ranged from complete (cinnamon and cloves against A. hydrophila) to no inhibition. Antibacterial inhibition zone ranged from 8 mm to 45 mm: thyme essential oil showed the greatest inhibition against A. hydrophila.
Arch Intern Med. 1998 Nov 9;158(20):2200-11. : Comment in: Arch Intern Med. 1999 May 24;159(10):1142-3.
Arch Intern Med. 1999 Sep 13;159(16):1957-8.
Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions.
Miller LG.
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo 79121, USA.

Herbal medicinals are being used by an increasing number of patients who typically do not advise their clinicians of concomitant use. Known or potential drug-herb interactions exist and should be screened for. If used beyond 8 weeks, Echinacea could cause hepatotoxicity and therefore should not be used with other known hepatoxic drugs, such as anabolic steroids, amiodarone, methotrexate, and ketoconazole. However, Echinacea lacks the 1,2 saturated necrine ring associated with hepatoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may negate the usefulness of feverfew in the treatment of migraine headaches. Feverfew, garlic, Ginkgo, ginger, and ginseng may alter bleeding time and should not be used concomitantly with warfarin sodium. Additionally, ginseng may cause headache, tremulousness, and manic episodes in patients treated with phenelzine sulfate. Ginseng should also not be used with estrogens or corticosteroids because of possible additive effects. Since the mechanism of action of St John wort is uncertain, concomitant use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is ill advised. Valerian should not be used concomitantly with barbiturates because excessive sedation may occur. Kyushin, licorice, plantain, uzara root, hawthorn, and ginseng may interfere with either digoxin pharmacodynamically or with digoxin monitoring. Evening primrose oil and borage should not be used with anticonvulsants because they may lower the seizure threshold. Shankapulshpi, an Ayurvedic preparation, may decrease phenytoin levels as well as diminish drug efficacy. Kava when used with alprazolam has resulted in coma. Immunostimulants (eg, Echinacea and zinc) should not be given with immunosuppressants (eg, corticosteroids and cyclosporine). Tannic acids present in some herbs (eg, St John wort and saw palmetto) may inhibit the absorption of iron. Kelp as a source of iodine may interfere with thyroid replacement therapies. Licorice can offset the pharmacological effect of spironolactone. Numerous herbs (eg, karela and ginseng) may affect blood glucose levels and should not be used in patients with diabetes mellitus.