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fatty liver disease

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Flutd Fus

hypokalemia- low potassium

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Just Feline Health Links
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These health links and tidbits are feline - cat - specific--please check the other categories at the left for more specific writeups on health conditions such as flutd, pkd, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic renal failure, megacolon, hyperthyroidism and feline cancer.

Although I have had cats for most of my life I just paid attention to loving my cats -never worried about their health, diet or how much they much they drank-they lived long lives.
Once I adopted Snowball-the crash course and constant questioning began-Then when Morgan developed bone cancer and Yuki was tentatively diagnosed with mammary cancer forget it! Had to learn that one way of pilling a cat is to put the kitty cat between your knees and let the kitty cat face forward-crossing your legs so there no escape-then forcing mouth open-much easier than wrapping the kitty cat in a towel-also learned about pillgun-also learned you can dilute antibiotics in distilled water and administer it with eye dropper-(although haven't tried it, you can coat the pill in butter or try to hide it in cream cheese) (how awful to find pills spit out elsewhere-boy are they clever:-)-Then learned that to bathe a kitty-much easier to put a large container in bathtub-filled with warm water- less threatening that a huge tub filled with water-learned that most kitty cats like pumpkin which is great source of fiber for the constipated kitty cat-learned that homeopathic Fragaria 6(Doliosis sells the strawberry dilution) may help break down tartar-coenzyme q-10(just found to help slow down Parkinson's), besides benefiting heart might benefit periodental disease.
Bromelain as a supplement might help ease the problem of furballs, besides sinus problems because of its anti inflammatory properties.

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The only basic I have learned about kitty cats is that you can't give them enough love.
If you cat is prone to illness, switching to high quality food helps immensely. Anything that supports their immune system. Shallow glass water dishes are the safest. Who would ever have thought that plastic being hard to clean might create the feline acne seen in some cats? Who would have thought that some of those imported ceramic dishes would have toxins leech into the water? or metallic bowls give the water a tainted taste besides also getting into the water? or distilled water eliminating vital minerals?
Dogs fast when sick
How many of us know that kitty cats can get fatty liver disease, especially if they are obsese if they skip a few meals?

.A list of discount vet pharmacies can be found by clicking here

Does your cat need to be retrained to use the litter box? One possible way of doing it is buying Nature's Miracle or XO to remove the smell. Then buy Cat Attract (I bought it from which is a special litter with an ingredient that attracts cats. Also buy No Go which I also bought at and spray a light layer on the carpets to repel your kitty cat from eliminating on the sprayed areas. I also use Carpet Fresh is a self drying foam which supposedly encapsulates and dissolves the odors.

-Cats evolved from the desert and have the ability to retain water as form of adaptation to desert conditions. How many of us at first just use the convenience of dry food-processed at that? Logic would dictate that because of this diet and cat's propensity to retain bodily fluids it is no wonder that so many kitty cats wind up with renal problems!ps my vet said there are many cats who have lived on dry food and reached ripe old ages-he added who knows maybe they would have lived to be 25! Frightening to read how renal disease is like a stealth fighter plane-usually you don't find out about the damage until it is too late-Finally found something on net that is strongest statement re dry food and idiopathic cystitis-(Yuki gets recurrent urinary infections and it appears that olive leaf extract works as well as antibiotics).
Feline Nutrition Update Vincent Biourge France
Superior detailed article on nutrition-a must read...mentions interesting cats in wild get vitamin D from their prey and not from sunbathing;"High fat, low carbohydrate diets commonly improve the condition of feline patients suffering chronic diarrhea and most “premium” diets are formulated accordingly....If cats are offered a highly palatable, high fat, diet-free choice, they tend to overeat, especially if they are neutered..Thus while the cat appears to have evolved as a strict carnivorous, there is no nutritional basis for precluding a portion of the energy in the diet being supplied from carbohydrates, provided needs for all other nutrients are met.... Studies designed to evaluate if high levels of vitamin A could be associated with health problems in queens showed that cats were quite resistant to vitamin A toxicity. "

Natalie wrote the following :
"I can tell you that the single most important thing you can do for a CRF kitty is make sure their phosphorous is at or slightly below 4. You can order Basaljel (a popular aluminum hydroxide phosphorus binder in gel caps) from Canada. They don't make it here in the US anymore, but it's also very inexpensive in Canada - even with shipping. It binds phosphorous in the gut (you give with food) and is eliminated as bodily waste. You'd also want to minimize intake of sodium and magnesium. Calcium and vitamin D are another thing to watch, as CRF kitties can get an overabundance of calcium in their systems and suffer from calcification of soft muscle tissue if it gets too high. If you need Basaljel, Pet Pharm ( is an Ontario, Canada mail order pet pharmacy."

large writeup on diabetes
Diet—Feline Some recent evidence suggests that high protein rather than high fiber diets may be more useful in cats with diabetes. Ongoing studies suggest that such diets (canned kitten diets) result in a decrease in insulin dosage and even remission of the diabetes. This may be due in part to the high protein requirement of cats coupled with the high CHO content of most commercial cat foods.

"the exclusive consumption of dry food--regardless of composition or effect on urine pH--is a common historical finding in cats with idiopathic cystitis."Another great article at the Newman Vet site re early detection of renal problems is heresweet tuOne reads and reads about renal disease and hardly ever sees mention about water intake
How much we take for granted until something goes wrong!

"The prevalence of hyperthyroidism in pet cats (benign nodular hyperplasia) has reached epidemic proportions, since it was first described in 1979. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that consumption of canned foods compared with dry foods increases the risk of hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, the risk associated with lower iodine concentrations in canned foods and chemicals in can linings was evaluated."
Endocrine disrupters in food can linings and the environment may explain the recent epidemic of hyperthyroidism in cats, since easy-open cans have gained popularity. This same relationship should also be evaluated in humans.

My Snowy, prolapse king had major constipation problems-probably related to his having feline herpes virus and poor immune system-(three surgeries-two major-just adding flaxseed and cottage cheese(contains probiotics to restore healthy Flora to his digestive system-which was probably destroyed by all the antibiotics he was given-for past month, has turned him into a "regular" kitty cat! SAY GOOD BYE TO PETROMALT-at least for now-psyllium, slippery elm, pumpkin didn't remedy the problem.


Among the many products KVVET sells, Maxi/guard oral gel is one of them. Oral gel for cats' dental needs. Read a recent research study strongly suggesting might help for stomatatis, gingivitis,oral ulcers, problems associated with feline herpes Clinical and microbiological effects of oral zinc ascorbate gel in cats.
The results of this study suggest that zinc ascorbate gel used as an oral antiseptic improves feline oral health, and may be most effective in decreasing bacterial growth, plaque formation, and gingivitis when applied following a professional teeth cleaning procedure.

The Cat Sack is a gentle restrain for cats that are hard to give medication to.

click here for the best article I have read on FLUTD-(..Superior article on urinary infections in cats- a must read although technical
mentions diet..change to wet food, mentions medications such as" N-acetyl glucosamine is the precursor of GAG. It can be given as different food supplements. Preference: Cystease™ (Ceva Animal Health) 125 mg per cat PO q24 h. Pentosan polysulphate (Cartrophen™; Arthropharm Limited) is a semi-synthetic polymer that is given parenterally, by subcutaneous injection, 3 mg/kg on days 1, 2, 5, and 10, then every 5–10 days. ..Also, since FLUTD is usually self-limiting, many treatments may appear to be effective, when they actually have no positive effect. All treatments should therefore be considered with appropriate caution. I do have links to articles at Links to flutd-click here. As more drugs are tried, the list of those that are either unhelpful, or even harmful, is growing. Treatments that have been critically assessed include corticosteroids and antibiotics, and neither was found to have a positive effect." You should really print this one out for your vet! She also mentions eliminating stress and warns specifically of certain drugs "A number of drugs should never be given to cats, eg, the urinary tract antiseptic, methylene blue, and the urinary tract analgesic, phenazopyridine; both of which can result in severe Heinz body anaemia."

Directory of Cat Websites
& Tons of FREE Cat Stuff!

  • Feliway-featured product.
    It helps reduce stress in most cats. This is ultra important if you have a cat with herpes virus where stress causes flareups. If you introduce a kitty cat into a new home, this might help or take your cat to the vets. It is mostly advertised for inappropriate urinating and marking. It may also help with aggressive behavior.

    Widgie's companion writes"My Widgie was coughing maybe once a day (usually around 4 am) and also started the reverse sneezing thing. BUT Widgie has never had feline herpes. She has feline asthma which went untreated for years because we could not put her on prednisone, which is a steroid. Now, thanks to inhaled steroids, she no longer coughs and her reverse sneeze is gone. She uses FloVent with a spacer and mask. Up until this weekend, we used a pediatric spacer device. Now there is a spacer/mask designed just for cats...the AeroKat. We have one of the first spacers that were made available. It is more comfy for her and will provide more medication to her lungs. The inhaled meds eliminate the bad side effects of using steroids since it goes only to the lungs.For the best link on feline asthma I've seen, go to which shows great pics of cats using inhaled meds and a wealth of info for cat owners and for vets!. and are yahoo groups you can ask information and share. "
    the website for AeroKat is

    Dr.Belfield's article on urinary infections-mentions ash and CARPON-cranberry extract and success with flutd

  • feline vaccination by Dr.Levy
  • If you beloved cat is infected with the retrovirus FIV, you might want to read about Moducare--moducare research

  • Dr. Christine Chambreau, reflects on the holistic animal health seminar she presented in October 1999

  • Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery
    you can look up abstracts!

  • must read-re vaccination sarcoma-recommendations

  • Vaccine-Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force

  • Dr.Mike-if you are limited in time-this site is awesome and well organized

  • appetite stimulants-Winstrol-V (Stanazolol),Valium (Diazepam),Spirulina,Periactin (Cyproheptadine),Oxazepam,Baby Food,B12 Vitamins
    I use Felovite II or nutri cal or nutri stat-high calorie low volume-think they saved Snowy's life when he didn't want to eat for a month and had to be force fed

  • 125x125static_reptile

    PETsMART Clearance
  • Long Beach Animal hospital has a lot of informative articles such as surgical pictures. *Abdominal Hernia Allergies (skin) Anesthesia *Aural (ear) Hematoma Bladder Stones Cushing's Disease Dental Disease Diabetes (Sugar) Diagnostic Tests Ear Infection Ear Cleaning Ear Mites Feeding Tubes Kidney Disease Feline Leukemia (FeLV) Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) Feline Immunodeficiency (FIV) Feline Urinary Tract Disease Fluid Administration *Fractured Jaw Hypertension Hyperthyroidism *Intestine Tumor Liver Disease Lymph Node Disease Lymphocytic Gingivitis Neuter Ringworm Sarcoptic Mange (Scabies) *Squamous Cell Carcinoma *Spaying Urinary Blockage (FLUTD) Worms X-Ray Pictures
  • felv-"We do have a large client volume-(nine small animal veterinarians), and have used Immunoregulin in 700 cats. I feel that this "volume of opinion" warrants merit. - Cats responded well "

  • The Cat in Biomedical Research
    there are some very interesting connections in this article re feline health conditions and human health conditions

  • FelineFuture-awesome on nutrition and what not to feed!

  • early neutering org
    feline asthmaFeline asthma. Diagnosis and treatment "An important new development in our understanding of this disease is the occurrence of airway inflammation even when patients are symptom-free. It is therefore crucial that we direct our therapeutic attention toward the underlying chronic inflammation that causes the acute clinical signs of cough, wheeze, and increased respiratory effort." Feline asthma syndrome:
    "Feline asthma syndrome (FAS) is a clinical condition characterised by recurrent bouts of coughing, wheezing and, or, dyspnoea."
    Prednisolone alone was the most effective therapy, although avoidance of putative aeroallergens and antibacterial therapy was effective in some.
    feline asthma-MARVISTA VETS
    what is asthma
    mentions drugs such as Cyproheptadine, Zamflurkast (Accolate
    asthma in catsfeline asthmanew ways to manage feline asthmainhaled drugs for feline asthma
    Articles by Dr.Margaret Muns
    she has wonderful forum at
    Chronic Nasal Disease in Catsfeline diabetescat scratch in humanscat constipationFeline Inflammatory Bowel Disease-IBD
    lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis (LPE).

    Typing the queen and tom before mating
    Test kittens blood groups at birth
    . Prevent at-risk kittens from suckling their queens for 16 hoursDr. Schoen
    Vita C etc
    Feline immunodeficiency virus status of Australian cats with lymphosarcoma.
    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of FIV infection was considerably higher in our cohort of cats compared with series of lymphosarcoma cases from the Northern hemisphere. A positive FIV status was strongly associated with lymphosarcoma in Australian cats and it is possible that this infection may predispose to the development of lymphoid neoplasia. The presence of FIV infection would have been underestimated if commercial kits alone had been used for serology
    viral diseases in felines
    Ask Dr.Schoen - a holistic vet has articles such asWhat is Integrative Holistic Animal Health Care?Animal Massage: The Touch that Heals,Flower Essence Therapy: Fact or Fiction?,Feline Bladder Problems : An Integrated Approach,Botanical Medicine & Herbal Tonics for Pets,Echinacea & Other Herbal Immunostimulants for Pets,Food Allergies: The Natural ApproachMagnetic Therapy: Fact or Fiction?,Hopeful News for Degenerative Neurologic Diseases,Lyme Disease: Fact from Fiction,Natural Options for my Arthritic Dog!,Natural Options for Treatment of Cancer in Dogs and Cats, Natural Support for Heart Problems in Dogs and CatsSeizures in Dogs & Cats: An Integrative Approach Feline Upper Respiratory, Infections: An Integrative ApproachWinterizing your pets! What you can do!FIP,FIV
    IBD-Dr. Muns, DVMcornell IBD
    imflammatory bowel
    DISEASES OF LOWER URINARY TRACTCAT NUTRITIONErythropoietin (Epogen, Marogen, Procrit)-chronic renal failure=helps treat anemia-read in another article it might help wasting(cachexia)
    Cornell veterinary researchers start clinical trials of drug to combat feline anemia due to chronic kidney failure and cancers FOR RELEASE: May 29, 2001
    The lives of cats suffering from nonregenerative anemia might be improved with the beginning of clinical trials of recombinant feline erythropoietin (rfEPO) developed by Cornell University veterinary researchers. Nonregenerative anemia is the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells as a result of chronic renal disease, certain types of cancer and other chronic diseases. " Lymphosarcoma, or cancer of lymphoid tissue, is one of the most common feline cancers. Special diets and phosphate binders are prescribed by veterinarians as a medical management strategy for renal failure to prolong cats' lives for months or years -- unless anemia becomes a problem. Similarly, chemotherapy for lymphosarcoma can result in remission and allow survival for six to 12 months -- without the complications of anemia. "
    Dr Addie-a must read!
    a lecturer in Veterinary Clinical Virology -spent the last 13 years researching feline infectious peritonitis
    treatment can occasionally effect a remission, sometimes for months. "Because FIP is an immune mediated disease, therapy includes suppressing the immune response, usually with corticosteroids. Anti-viral treatments alone don't usually prolong the cat's life by much and many are quite toxic to cats. It is also important to maintain the cat's general nutrition status, by adding vitamins and antioxidants. Before embarking on any of the following therapies, it is essential to ensure that the diagnosis is correct, immunosuppressive drugs could markedly worsen other conditions
    How to prevent feline coronavirus and latest research
    diet for CRFTAURINETOMATO-" However, most people, including veterinarians, are unaware that tomato, as a member of the Nightshade family, contains a bitter poisonous alkaloid called "Solanine". Solanine is toxic to humans as well, but it requires a much more concentrated amount, like that found in green potatoes and potato sprouts, to induce sickness. For the carnivore cat, on the other side, traces of Solanin, like those found in just a 100g of cherry tomatoes, can be fatal! "FELV
    Exhaustive list of feline health LINKSANOTHER GREAT SITE FOR FELINE HEALTH LINKSLong Beach Animal
    extensive info
    Feline HCM
    FATE Feline Aortic Thromboembolism "saddle" thrombus " What causes FATE? All types of feline heart cardiomyopathy are typified by left atrial enlargement. As the atrium enlarges, blood flow becomes sluggish and promotes the formation of intracardiac thrombi. These clots are pumped out into the aorta and usually lodge in the terminal aorta. Cats with FATE present for acute rear limb paralysis or paresis."
    holistic cat constipationfeline first aid
    feline diabetesnutrition-HDW" hairballsFLUTD
    Living with the FeLV+ or FIV+ Catcat nutritionCORNELL
    cat nutrition
    cat anorexiafeline epilespyheartwormsociety
    feline epilepsyfeline leukemiaFeline hip dysplasia
    hip dysplasia
    personal account
    Hip dysplasia: a feline population study.
    There were 684 cats from 12 breeds. The data derived from this study indicate the frequency of feline hip dysplasia in this population to be about 6.6% (45/684) and that the incidence appears to be breed dependent. Also, the radiographic appearance of hip dysplasia in cats is different than in dogs. A shallow acetabulum with remodeling and proliferation involving the cranio-dorsal acetabular margin were the most common radiographic signs. Minimal remodeling of the femoral neck was seen.
    Radiographic features of feline joint diseases.
    There is a growing awareness that osteoarthritis occurs more frequently than previously anticipated in cats, and recently we have seen the emergence of hip dysplasia as an entity of concern in some purebred cats. There are also several poorly understood conditions that affect the joints of cats, such as synovial osteochondromatosis, that invite further study. In recent years we have seen an expansion in the knowledge of immune-mediated and infectious arthropathies and their inter-relationship with infective agents.
    pet arthritis center-huge site devoted to the topic
    Feline DPK
    Polycystic Kidney Disease
    alternative for arthritis treatment-warning re Tylenol (acetaminophen). buprofen (Advil, Motrin etc.) or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, (NSAIDS).
    pain control in cats
    mentions how felines
    can hide intense pain
    pdk in persians
    feline elipepsy and seizures
    feline behavioral
    vet site
    FELV-AWESOME!!!!personal siteFeline Leukemia (FeLV)-treatmenttuna?sardines?
    intestinal tumor
    a walk through
    Chronic Renal Failure
    site for Cats-awesome
    cats' eyes holistic cat constipation Pottenger's Cats
    -cat diet
    Feline leukemia
    Strombecks home cooked recipes for kidney diseaseHepatic lipidosis
    danger if cat stops eating
    feline renal failure
    holisticat cat
    -liver problems
    faq-MEDICALrespiratory uri
    also re
    FIV diet-herbal etc
    The Natural Remedy Book
    For Dogs & Cats" by Diane Stein
    is recommended.
    The Texas A&M University System.-faq fivCat virus that doesn't kill
    discovery magazine
    Article from Jean Hofve,DVM
    mentions dry food and renal problems
     use search
    function feline
    for articles
    FIP-newman veterinary
    However, keep in environmental exposure to FIP from shedding animals appears to represent a minor or inconsequential source of acquired FIP
    Massive doses of interferon may help some severely debilitated cats...though effusive FIP has been much more difficult to treat.
    herpesHerplex® (idoxuridine), interferon and lysinediet hypersensivity
    facial and neck pruritis localised or generalised scales or crusts miliary dermatitis symmetrical or localised areas of alopecia - do a search of the site as pages seem to change

    derm. lecture..for vets
  • <
    herpes virus
    Oral interferon, acyclovir
    Animal Protection Institute-search the site for all sorts of articles such as feline vaccination guidelines more re herpes
    get rid of stress-
    DVD Muns
    nasal disease
    of FHV
    feline help di-rectory
    colstate-notice re antiobiotics-fhv cat nutrition Feline Aids-personal page filled with supplements wholistic feline-Shirley's wellness cafe-excellent
    Dr. Pollack-nutrition catnetwork- feline vaccinations heel products-grippheel traumeel holistic cat coughing etc
    FIV-lactoferrin-intractable stomatitis-research alt med research articles white cats and deafness marvista-upper feline respiratory
    plasmacytic lymphocytic stomatitis (PLS) -"the problem is that the cat over reacts to the plaque on the teeth and an "autoimmune" response occurs" Feline Faucitis "Feline faucitis syndrome is a chronic severe inflammatory response of the back of the mouth caused by a Calici virus. Cats with feline faucitis have throats that are fire engine red with ugly proliferative tissue resembling raspberries"-the article also mentions Omega 3's as antiinflammatory and interferon -the vet recommends tests for CBC/Biochemical Profile/UA Retrovirus tests (Feleuk/FIV) Corona virus (FIP) vetdetistry Risk Of Feline
    Infectious Peritonitis
    In Cats Naturally
    Infected With
    Feline Coronavirus
    -Plasmacytic Gingivitis Stomatitis (LPGS)
    FORLfeline odontoclastic
    resorptive lesion
    Risk of FIP
    Risk Of Feline Infectious
    Peritonitis In Cats Naturally Infected With Feline Coronavirus
    consil- " Consil is a synthetic bioactive ceramic material, which bonds to bone as well as soft tissue, and can even regenerate bone in periodontal pockets. "
    Eosinophilic Granulomamarvista-eosinophilic granuloma.feline skin problems
    feline leukemiapractical approach to feline housesoiling
    Dr.Jeff's favorite supplementsgenetics of immunity
    tips for recognizing immune difficulties
    fading kitten syndrome
    neonatal isocrythrolysis
    " If a queen with type B blood is bred to a type A tom and produces kittens of type A, these antibodies in the colostrum (first milk) of the mother will cause destruction of red blood cells in the kittens. These kittens are born healthy, and may have red-brown colored urine within hours of their first nursing"
    fading kitten syndrome
    It behooves breeders to consider not breeding a type B female, because they're going to have to find a type B male to breed with her all the time," she said. "The more often you breed a type B mother, the more you're increasing the pool of type B cats and hence the risk of future disease."
    Feline cardiomyopathiesmanaging pain in felines
    Feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (hcm FIP HCM
  • The findings of the current study do not appear to support the traditional view of hyperthyroid cats as being old, hyperactive, hungry and thin. Carbimazole therapy was found to decrease the prevalence of almost all clinical abnormalities in 14 cats and side-effects were minor and uncommon
    other studies have also mentioned decrease in symptoms in hyperthyroid cats
  • feline hyperthyroidism
    " Most clinicians are very familiar with the presentation of the "typical" hyperthyroid cat. These clinical signs include polyphagia, weight loss, polyuria/polydypsia, gastrointestinal signs, and a poor hair coat. However, because the awareness and testing for this disease has increased so has the identification of the "atypical" case. These signs include decreased appetite, depression and lethargy.
    The article goes on to mention three types of treatment and their advantages and disadvantages"
  • Study suggesting that autoimmune reaction might NOT be cause of hyperthyroidism in cats
    "At least in the animals included in this study, there is no evidence for the presence of circulating thyroid stimulating factors as a mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of feline hyperthyroidism, and the findings support a model involving intrinsic autonomy of thyroid follicular cell growth and function."
    Hyperthyrodism-wasting disease
    Symptoms range from behavioral changes -activity level,appetite change,irregular heart rate,thirst,urination,bone wasting..
    . Radioactive Iodine (Iodine 131)
    Tapazole- methimazole; PTU- propylthiouracil-inhibators of thyroid hormones
    Thyroid Cat feline
    Feline hyperthyroidism search for the articlefeline hyperthyroidism
    nuclear medicine
    "This painless alternative to radical thyroid surgery is stress free, and is regarded as over 95% effective in COMPLETELY curing the cat!"
    pkd links-polycystic kidney disease-especially in Persians
    feline hyperthyroidism-
    superior personal site!
    treatmental and alternative treatment

    behavioral problems
  • Use of cyproheptadine to control urine spraying in a castrated male domestic cat.
    "Treatment included behavior modification and the administration of cyproheptadine, which resulted in the immediate arrest of undesirable urine marking. Cyproheptadine administration was adjusted to determine the lowest dosage that effectively maintained the cat's consistent use of the litter box.""Cyproheptadine, an antihistamine prescribed for its orexigenic effects in cats, has antiandrogenic effects in other species. Information in this report indicates that cyproheptadine is effective in the control of urine spraying even in castrated cats."
  • behavioral problems-newman vet
  • Feliway-product to help prevent cats from marking territory
  • Feline idiopathic lower urinary tract disease.
    The cause(s) of hematuria, dysuria, and pollakiuria cannot be identified in most male and female cats with commonly used clinical techniques. Suggested, but still unproven, causes of idiopathic lower urinary tract disease include uropathogens, increased permeability of the bladder mucosa to urine constituents that stimulate inflammatory responses, and inflammation triggered by neurogenic mechanisms.
  • Feeding this commercial canned urinary acidifying diet may reduce the proportion of cats with idiopathic cystitis that will have recurrence of signs of LUTD within a 12-month period.
    Idiopathic Vestibular Disease
  • Peripheral vestibular disease associated with cryptococcosis in three cats
    This report emphasizes the importance of maintaining an index of suspicion for a fungal aetiology in cats with signs of otitis media/interna, particularly in countries with a high prevalence of cryptococcosis.
  • Dietary management of feline chronic renal failure: where are we now? In what direction are we headed?
    Diets designed for cats with chronic renal failure are typically formulated to be pH neutral and contain reduced quantities of protein, phosphorus and sodium and an increased quantity of potassium. These changes in diet formulation are designed to ameliorate clinical signs of renal failure by adapting dietary intakes to meet the limited ability of failing kidneys to adapt to the normal range of dietary intakes.
  • Transfer of the feline erythropoietin gene to cats using a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector.

  • Chronic renal failure and the associated erythropoietin-responsive anemia afflicts over 2 million domestic cats in the United States, resulting in morbidity that can affect the owner-pet relationship. Although treatment of cats with recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo) protein can be effective, response to the drug often dissipates over time, probably due to the development of antibodies reactive with the human protein. As an alternate approach to the treatment of this disease, we have developed a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector containing the feline erythropoietin gene (rAAV/feEpo). This vector, when administered intramuscularly to normal healthy cats, caused a dose-related increase in hematocrit over a 7-week period after injection. Thus, the rAAV/feEpo vector holds promise as a simple, safe and effective therapy for the anemia of chronic renal failure in domestic cats.
  • Management of hypertension controls postoperative neurologic disorders after renal transplantation in cats
    s. Hypertension was treated in all 21 cats with subcutaneously administered hydralazine which reduced systolic blood pressure..Hypertension is a major contributing factor to postoperative seizure activity after renal transplantation in cats; treatment of hypertension reduces the frequency of neurologic complications.
  • Amlodipine can be used for long-term control of feline systemic hypertension.
  • The Effect of Diet on Lower Urinary Tract Diseases in Cats1
    Recent observations suggest that recurrence rates of signs in cats classified as having idiopathic lower urinary tract disease may be more than halved if affected animals are maintained on high, rather than low moisture content diets
  • ; Visit The Directory Of Cat Web Sites
    100x27 v1
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002 Apr 1;220(7):1028-33: Separation anxiety syndrome in cats: 136 cases (1991-2000).
    Schwartz S.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cats develop clinical signs typical of separation anxiety syndrome (SAS) and the type and frequency of applicable clinical signs in affected cats. DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: 136 cats with clinical signs typical of SAS in dogs. Subjects were evaluated during home visits. PROCEDURE: Medical records of pet cats evaluated for behavior problems during a 10-year period were reviewed. Medical records of cats that displayed behaviors typical of dogs with SAS (eg, inappropriate elimination, excessive vocalization, destructiveness, or self-mutilation) were more extensively examined, and cats that displayed these behaviors only when separated from an apparent attachment figure were included in the study. RESULTS: Behavior problems triggered by separation anxiety included inappropriate urination (96 cats), inappropriate defecation (48), excessive vocalization (16), destructiveness (12), and psychogenic grooming (8). Inappropriate defecation was identified in a significantly higher percentage of the neutered females in the study than in the neutered males. Seventy-five percent of the cats that urinated inappropriately urinated exclusively on the owner's bed. Psychogenic grooming was identified in 8 of the 40 neutered females but in none of the neutered males, whereas destructiveness was observed in 12 of the 92 neutered males but in none of the neutered females. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that cats can develop SAS. Sex and breed differences in the frequency of particular signs of SAS in cats may exist. Feline SAS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of anxiety-related misbehavior in cats.
    : J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001 Dec 15;219(12):1709-13 : Causes of urine marking in cats and effects of environmental management on frequency of marking.
    Pryor PA, Hart BL, Bain MJ, Cliff KD.
    Behavior Service, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of environmental management alone on marking frequency in cats with urine marking and to obtain demographic data on cats with urine marking and data on owner-perceived factors that contributed to urine marking behavior. DESIGN: Single-intervention study. ANIMALS: 40 neutered male and 7 spayed female cats. PROCEDURE: During a 2-week baseline phase, owners maintained a daily record of the number of urine marks. This phase was followed by a 2-week environmental management phase during which owners cleaned recently deposited urine marks daily, scooped waste from the litter box daily, and changed the litter and cleaned the litter box weekly while continuing to record urine marks. RESULTS: Male cats and cats from multicat households were significantly overrepresented, compared with the general pet cat population in California. The most commonly mentioned causative factors for urine marking were agonistic interactions with other cats outside or inside the home. Environmental management procedures resulted in an overall reduction in urine marking frequency. Among cats that marked > or = 6 times during the baseline phase, females were significantly more likely to respond to treatment (> or = 50% reduction in marking frequency) than were males. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that male cats and cats from multicat households are more likely to exhibit urine marking behavior than females and cats from single-cat households. Results also suggest that attention to environmental and litter box hygiene can reduce marking frequency in cats, regardless of sex or household status of the cats, and may come close to resolving the marking problem in some cats.

    J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001 Dec 1;219(11):1557-61 : Effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor on urine spraying behavior in cats.
    Pryor PA, Hart BL, Cliff KD, Bain MJ.
    Behavior Service, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 95616, USA.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a readily available selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine hydrochloride, on reducing problem urine spraying in cats. DESIGN: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial. ANIMALS: 17 neutered cats > 1 year old with objectionable urine spraying behavior. Procedure-Owners recorded urine-spraying events for 2 weeks (baseline). Cats that vertically marked a mean of > or = 3 times per week were treated for 8 weeks with fluoxetine or fish-flavored liquid placebo. If urine spraying was not reduced by 70% by weeks 4 through 5, the dosage was increased by 50% for weeks 7 and 8. After discontinuation of treatment at the end of 8 weeks, owners recorded daily urine marks for another 4 weeks. RESULTS: The mean (+/- SE) weekly rate of spraying episodes in treated cats was 8.6 (+/- 2.0) at baseline, decreased significantly by week 2 (1.7 +/- 0.6), and continued to decrease by weeks 7 and 8 (0.4 +/- 0.2). The mean weekly spraying rate of cats receiving placebo was 7.8 (+/- 1.5) at baseline, decreased only slightly during week 1 (5.5 +/- 1.8), and did not decline further. When treatment was discontinued after 8 weeks, the spraying rate of cats that had received treatment varied. The main adverse reaction to the drug was a reduction in food intake, which was observed in 4 of 9 treated cats. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Administration of fluoxetine hydrochloride for treatment of urine spraying in cats can be expected to considerably reduce the rate of urine marking. The frequency of spraying before treatment is predictive of the spraying rate when the drug is discontinued.

    Am J Vet Res 2002 May;63(5):634-9 : Effects of neutering on hormonal concentrations and energy requirements in male and female cats.
    Hoenig M, Ferguson DC.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether changes in concentrations of hormones involved in glucose and fatty acid homeostasis are responsible for the increased probability that neutered cats will develop obesity and diabetes mellitus. ANIMALS: 10 male and 10 female weight-maintained adult cats. PROCEDURE: Results of glucose tolerance tests and concentrations of hormones and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were examined before and 4, 8, and 16 weeks after neutering. RESULTS: Caloric requirements for weight maintenance were significantly decreased 8 and 16 weeks after neutering in females. Glucose concentrations during a glucose tolerance test did not change in neutered females or males. The area under the curve (AUC) for insulin was significantly higher in males, compared with females, before neutering. However, the AUC for insulin increased and was significantly higher 4 and 8 weeks after neutering in females. The AUC for insulin did not change in neutered male cats. Leptin concentrations did not change in females but increased significantly in males 8 and 16 weeks after neutering. Thyroxine concentrations did not change after neutering; however, free thyroxine concentration was significantly higher in females than males before neutering. Baseline concentrations of NEFA were significantly higher in female than male cats before but not after neutering. Suppression of NEFA concentrations after glucose administration decreased successively in male cats after neutering, suggesting decreased insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Changes in NEFA suppression, caloric intake, and leptin concentrations may be indicators of, and possible risk factors for, the development of obesity in cats after neutering.