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Extra Virgin Olive Oil Benefits
After skimming the research abstracts on extra virgin olive oil, one might start wanting to add it to ones diet if one hasn't already. Extra virgin Olive oil with spaghetti and raw garlic and green salad with extraa virgin olive oil dressing just might be one great meal for your heart and anti cancer protection. Extra virgin Olive oil also has antioxidant properties and extra virgin olive oil might help alleviate stress.

1: Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6):1487-91.: Butter and walnuts, but not olive oil, elicit postprandial activation of nuclear transcription factor kappaB in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy men.
Bellido C, Lopez-Miranda J, Blanco-Colio LM, Perez-Martinez P, Muriana FJ, Martin-Ventura JL, Marin C, Gomez P, Fuentes F, Egido J, Perez-Jimenez F.
Lipids and Arteriosclerosis Unit, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Cordoba, Spain.

BACKGROUND: Nuclear transcription factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays an important role in atherosclerosis by modulating gene expression. Postprandial lipemia has been correlated with an increase in NF-kappaB activation in vascular cells and it is associated with an increase in postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins, which are involved in the development of atherosclerotic plaque. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the intakes of 3 different foods with different fat compositions on the postprandial activation of monocyte NF-kappaB. DESIGN: Eight healthy men followed a 4-wk baseline diet and then consumed 3 fat-load meals consisting of 1 g fat/kg body wt (65% fat) according to a randomized crossover design. Each meal had a different fatty acid composition, and the consumption of each meal was separated by 1 wk. The compositions of the 3 test meals were as follows: olive oil meal [22% saturated fatty acids (SFAs), 38% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), 4% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and 0.7% alpha-linolenic acid], butter meal (38% SFAs, 22% MUFAs, 4% PUFAs, and 0.7% alpha-linolenic acid), and walnut meal (20% SFAs, 24% MUFAs, 16% PUFAs, and 4% alpha-linolenic acid). RESULTS: Ingestion of the olive oil meal did not elicit NF-kappaB activation compared with ingestion of either the butter meal at 3 h (P <0.05) or the walnut meal at 9 h (P <0.05). There was no significant difference in the postprandial triacylglycerol response between the 3 meals. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of an olive oil-enriched meal does not activate NF-kappaB in monocytes as do butter and walnut-enriched meals. This effect could enhance the cardioprotective effect of olive oil-enriched diets.
Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6):1418-1425. : Potential usefulness of olive oil-based lipid emulsions in selected situations of home parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease.
Reimund JM, Arondel Y, Joly F, Messing B, Duclos B, Baumann R.
Service d'Hepato-Gastroenterologie et d'Assistance Nutritive, Centre Agree de Nutrition Parenterale a Domicile, Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Hopital de Hautepierre, 3, avenue Moliere, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex, France.

Long-term (i.e. home) parenteral nutrition has been advocated to be responsible for several metabolic complications among which hepatic disorders have long been the most relevant in view of patients' prognosis. The increased knowledge of the pathophysiologic factors associated to parenteral nutrition-related liver disease as well as the regular improvement of the components and the techniques used for parenteral nutrition leaded progressively to a better prevention of these side effects. This case report focuses on the potential interest of olive oil-based lipid emulsions in home parenteral nutrition patients, in selected situations of home parenteral nutrition-associated metabolic liver disease
J Nutr. 2004 Dec;134(12):3355-61.: Adherence to the traditional mediterranean diet is inversely associated with body mass index and obesity in a spanish population.
Schroder H, Marrugat J, Vila J, Covas MI, Elosua R.
Lipids and Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, IMIM, Barcelona, Spain.

The Mediterranean diet is a healthy eating pattern with protective effects on chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between BMI and obesity and the level of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. The subjects were Spanish men (n = 1547) and women (n = 1615) aged 25-74 y who were examined in 1999-2000, in a population-based, cross-sectional survey in the northeast of Spain (Girona). Dietary intake was assessed using a FFQ. A Mediterranean diet score, including foods considered to be characteristic components of the traditional Mediterranean diet (vegetables, fruits, pulses, nuts, fish, meat, cereals, olive oil, and wine) was created. An increase of 5 U in the dietary score was associated with a change in the BMI of 0.43 (P = 0.030) and 0.68 (P = 0.007), after controlling for potential confounders, in men and women, respectively. The obesity risk decreased in men (P = 0.010) and women (P = 0.013) with increasing adherence to the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern. The population in the top tertile of this score were less likely to be obese in both genders [odds ratio (OR) and (95% CI): 0.61 (0.40-0.92) in men; 0.61 (0.40-0.93) in women] after adjusting for potential confounders. These data suggest that the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern is inversely associated with BMI and obesity. This finding may be useful in the development of dietary approaches for dietary counseling and the prevention of obesity.
J Nutr. 2004 Dec;134(12):3284-9. : The unsaponifiable fraction of virgin olive oil in chylomicrons from men improves the balance between vasoprotective and prothrombotic factors released by endothelial cells.
Perona JS, Martinez-Gonzalez J, Sanchez-Dominguez JM, Badimon L, Ruiz-Gutierrez V.
Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), 41012 Sevilla, Spain.

Minor components of virgin olive oil (VOO) may play a key role in the beneficial effects of VOO on atherosclerosis. In the present study we evaluated the influence of the unsaponifiable fraction of VOO on the production of eicosanoids and nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial cells (HUVECs). Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRLs) were isolated from human serum after the intake of meals enriched in 3 high-oleic acid oils, i.e., high-oleic sunflower (HOSO), VOO, or enriched-virgin olive (EVO) oils, the last-mentioned containing 2.4% of unsaponifiable matter. HOSO induced a greater accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in the postprandial serum than VOO or EVO, as measured by calculating the area under the curve. The incubation with TRLs increased NO release by endothelial cells compared with untreated control cells, but the effects of the various TRLs did not differ. EVO-derived TRLs reduced the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and thromboxane B(2) (TxB(2)) (the stable metabolite of TxA(2)) compared with VOO- or HOSO-derived TRLs. The release of PGI(2) (as 6-keto PGF(1alpha)) was similarly diminished by all TRLs compared with the control. In conclusion, the unsaponifiable fraction of VOO does not affect postprandial triglyceridemia, but it has favorable effects on endothelial function, mainly by reducing proinflammatory and vasoconstrictor eicosanoid synthesis (PGE(2) and TxB(2)).
Nutr J. 2004 Nov 28;3(1):20.: An adaptogenic role for omega-3 fatty acids in stress; a randomised placebo controlled double blind intervention study (pilot) [ISRCTN22569553].
Bradbury J, Myers SP, Oliver C.
Australian Centre for Complementary Medicine, Education and Research, a joint venture between University of Queensland and Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia.
s4080747@student.uq.edu.au.

BACKGROUND: There is evidence for an adaptive role of the omega -3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during stress. Mechanisms of action may involve regulation of stress mediators, such as the catecholamines and proinflammatory cytokines. Prevention of stress-induced aggression and hostility were demonstrated in a series of clinical trials. This study investigates whether perceived stress is ameliorated by DHA in stressed university staff. METHODS: Subjects that scored >/= 17 on the Perceived Stress Scale were randomised into a 6-week pilot intervention study. The diet reactive group was supplemented with 6 g of fish oil containing 1.5 g per day DHA, while the placebo group was supplemented with 6 g a day of olive oil. The groups were compared with each other and a wider cross sectional study population that did not receive either active or placebo intervention. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in perceived stress in both the fish oil and the placebo group from baseline. There was also a significant between-group difference between the fish oil group and the no-treatment controls in the rate of stress reduction (p < 0.05). However, there was not a significant between-group difference between the fish oil and the placebo group, nor the placebo group and the control group.These results are discussed in the context of several methodological limitations. The significant stress reductions in both the fish oil and the placebo group are considered in view of statistical regression, an effect likely to have been exaggerated by the time course of the study, a large placebo effect and the possibility of an active effect from the placebo. CONCLUSION: There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the fish oil group compared with no-treatment controls. This effect was not demonstrated in the placebo group. As a pilot study, it was not sufficiently powered to find the difference between the fish oil group and the placebo group significant. Further work needs to be undertaken to conclusively demonstrate these data trends. However, the findings from this research support the literature in finding a protective or 'adaptogenic' role for omega-3 fatty acids in stress.
J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2004 Oct 29;61(1-2):155-60. Related Articles, Links Analysis of minor components in olive oil. Murkovic M, Lechner S, Pietzka A, Bratacos M, Katzogiannos E. Department of Food Chemistry and Technology, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 12/2, Graz 8010, Austria.
Virgin olive oil is well known for its high content of phenolic substances that are thought to have health-promoting properties. These substances also contribute to the distinctive taste of the oil. In this study, tyrosol, vanillic acid, luteolin, and apigenin were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In the seven samples analysed, tyrosol, the most abundant, was in the range of 1.4-29 mg/kg, vanillic acid was in the range of 0.67-4.0 mg/kg, luteolin was in the range of 0.22-7.0 mg/kg, and apigenin was in the range of 0.68-1.6 mg/kg. It was also shown that in olive oil, squalene can be analysed by using a refractive index detector. In the samples analysed, squalene occurred in the range of 3.9-9.6 g/l.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;80(4):1012-8. : Olive oil, the Mediterranean diet, and arterial blood pressure: the Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
Psaltopoulou T, Naska A, Orfanos P, Trichopoulos D, Mountokalakis T, Trichopoulou A.
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.

BACKGROUND: Diet has been reported to influence arterial blood pressure, and evidence indicates that the Mediterranean diet reduces cardiovascular mortality. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether the Mediterranean diet, as an entity, and olive oil, in particular, reduce arterial blood pressure. DESIGN: Arterial blood pressure and several sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, and clinical variables were recorded at enrollment among participants in the Greek arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Of these participants, 20 343 had never received a diagnosis of hypertension and were included in an analysis in which systolic and diastolic blood pressure were regressed on the indicated possible predictors, including a 10-point score that reflects adherence to the Mediterranean diet and, alternatively, the score's individual components and olive oil. RESULTS: The Mediterranean diet score was significantly inversely associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Intakes of olive oil, vegetables, and fruit were significantly inversely associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, whereas cereals, meat and meat products, and ethanol intake were positively associated with arterial blood pressure. Mutual adjustment between olive oil and vegetables, which are frequently consumed together, indicated that olive oil has the dominant beneficial effect on arterial blood pressure in this population. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is inversely associated with arterial blood pressure, even though a beneficial component of the Mediterranean diet score-cereal intake-is positively associated with arterial blood pressure. Olive oil intake, per se, is inversely associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):1113-21. : Virgin olive oil reduces blood pressure in hypertensive elderly subjects.
Perona JS, Canizares J, Montero E, Sanchez-Dominguez JM, Catala A, Ruiz-Gutierrez V.
Instituto de la Grasa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero 4, Sevilla 41012, Spain.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease. Recent studies have pointed out the possibility that virgin olive oil (VOO) may lower blood pressure in hypertensive (HT) subjects. However, until the date there is scarce information regarding elderly people. The present study was designed to assess the effect of dietary VOO on blood pressure in medically treated hypertensive elderly patients. METHODS: 31 medically treated HT elderly patients and 31 normotensive (NT) elderly volunteers participated in a randomized sequential dietary intervention. Subjects consumed diets enriched in sunflower oil (SO) or VOO for 4 weeks each with a 4-week washout period between them. RESULTS: VOO reduced total and LDL-cholesterol in NT but not in HT (P < 0.01) and the concentrations were lower than in the group consuming SO. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the levels of tocopherols among the groups studied. Iron-induced oxidation of LDL resulted in a complete loss of monoacylglycerols (MG) and diacylglycerols (DG) and a reduction in triacylglycerols (TG) (60-80%), which was found to be greater in HT (P < 0.01) with no effect of diet. VOO consumption normalized systolic pressure in the HT group (136 +/- 10 mmHg) compared to SO (150 +/- 8 mmHg). CONCLUSION: Dietary VOO proved to be helpful in reducing the systolic pressure of treated HT elderly subjects. However, a greater resistance to the lowering effect of VOO of total and LDL-cholesterol and a greater susceptibility to TG oxidation was detected in these patients
Public Health Nutr. 2004 Oct;7(7):953-8. : Ageing and the Mediterranean diet: a review of the role of dietary fats.
Battino M, Ferreiro MS
. Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.
m.a.battino@univpm.it

Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the relationship between food and health. Concerns have been raised about dietary fats and their relative nutritional advantages or disadvantages. In investigations of the associations between health and fat intake, special emphasis has been placed on the benefits of virgin olive oil for counteracting certain neurodegenerative diseases and ageing. With respect to ageing, accumulating evidence indicates that an improvement in quality of life can be reached by modulation of the extrinsic factors that influence many ageing processes. Of the modifiable factors, nutrition appears to be one of the strongest elements known to influence the rate of ageing as well as the incidence of age-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative pathologies. This paper reviews the theory of ageing and the role of fatty acids in the mechanisms affecting its evolution. It also confirms that virgin olive oil, an essential component of the Mediterranean diet, provides large amounts of stable and not easily oxidizable fatty acids as well as remarkable quantities of powerful antioxidant molecules.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2004 Sep 24;4:853-8. : A case follow-up report: possible health benefits of extra virgin olive oil.
Shahtahmasebi S, Shahtahmasebi S.
RaDiSol, (R & D Integrated Solutions), Christchurch, New Zealand.
RaDiSol@xtra.co.nz

In the course of a case study, a number of issues regarding the dynamics of blood cholesterol levels were identified. In this follow-up report, these issues are addressed. For example, issues of past behaviour and seasonality, intraindividual variation, and nonstationarity appear important over and above controllable variables such as diet and exercise. In this report, we conceptualise an alternative protective role for the dynamic blood cholesterol levels in a healthy population. Furthermore, regular consumption of extra virgin olive oil as produced in this case study may interact with the dynamics of cholesterol naturally. We recommend that future studies of this kind ought to include a time series of blood cholesterol based on daily measurements or intervals much shorter than the bimonthly measurements and to include measures of overall well being as covariates.
Altern Med Rev. 2004 Sep;9(3):297-307. : Medical nutrition therapy as a potential complementary treatment for psoriasis--five case reports
. Brown AC, Hairfield M, Richards DG, McMillin DL, Mein EA, Nelson CD.
Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences,University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1955 East West Road, Rm 216, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
amybrown@hawaii.edu
This research evaluated five case studies of patients with psoriasis following a dietary regimen. There is no cure for psoriasis and the multiple treatments currently available only attempt to reduce the severity of symptoms. Treatments range from topical applications, systemic therapies, and phototherapy; while some are effective, many are associated with significant adverse effects. There is a need for effective, affordable therapies with fewer side effects that address the causes of the disorder. Evaluation consisted of a study group of five patients diagnosed with chronic plaque psoriasis (two men and three women, average age 52 years; range 40-68 years) attending a 10-day, live-in program during which a physician assessed psoriasis symptoms and bowel permeability. Subjects were then instructed on continuing the therapy protocol at home for six months. The dietary protocol, based on Edgar Cayce readings, included a diet of fresh fruits and vegetables, small amounts of protein from fish and fowl, fiber supplements, olive oil, and avoidance of red meat, processed foods, and refined carbohydrates. Saffron tea and slippery elm bark water were consumed daily. The five psoriasis cases, ranging from mild to severe at the study onset, improved on all measured outcomes over a six-month period when measured by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) (average pre- and post-test scores were 18.2 and 8.7, respectively), the Psoriasis Severity Scale (PSS) (average pre- and post-test scores were 14.6 and 5.4, respectively), and the lactulose/mannitol test of intestinal permeability (average pre- and post-test scores were 0.066 to 0.026, respectively). These results suggest a dietary regimen based on Edgar Cayce's readings may be an effective medical nutrition therapy for the complementary treatment of psoriasis; however, further research is warranted to confirm these results.
1: J Nutr. 2004 Sep;134(9):2314-21.: Olive oils high in phenolic compounds modulate oxidative/antioxidative status in men.
Weinbrenner T, Fito M, de la Torre R, Saez GT, Rijken P, Tormos C, Coolen S, Albaladejo MF, Abanades S, Schroder H, Marrugat J, Covas MI
. Lipids and Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona, Spain.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether olive oils high in phenolic compounds influence the oxidative/antioxidative status in humans. Healthy men (n = 12) participated in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in which 3 olive oils with low (LPC), moderate (MPC), and high (HPC) phenolic content were given as raw doses (25 mL/d) for 4 consecutive days preceded by 10-d washout periods. Volunteers followed a strict very low-antioxidant diet the 3 d before and during the intervention periods. Short-term consumption of olive oils decreased plasma oxidized LDL (oxLDL), 8-oxo-dG in mitochondrial DNA and urine, malondialdehyde in urine (P < 0.05 for linear trend), and increased HDL cholesterol and glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05 for linear trend), in a dose-dependent manner with the phenolic content of the olive oil administered. At d 4, oxLDL after MPC and HPC, and 8-oxo-dG after HPC administration (25 mL, respectively), were reduced when the men were in the postprandial state (P < 0.05). Phenolic compounds in plasma increased dose dependently during this stage with the phenolic content of the olive oils at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h, respectively (P < 0.01). Their concentrations increased in plasma and urine samples in a dose-dependent manner after short-term consumption of the olive oils (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the olive oil phenolic content modulated the oxidative/antioxidative status of healthy men who consumed a very low-antioxidant diet.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004 Aug;86(3):225-35. Related Articles, Links High-fat corn oil diet promotes the development of high histologic grade rat DMBA-induced mammary adenocarcinomas, while high olive oil diet does not.
Costa I, Moral R, Solanas M, Escrich E.
Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Physiology Unit, Medical School, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Effects of a high corn oil and a high olive oil diet on the histopathologic characteristics of rat dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene-induced mammary adenocarcinomas were investigated in comparison with those of a control low-fat diet. Two experimental series (A and B) studied the influence of a high corn oil diet on the initiation and the promotion of mammary carcinogenesis, while another one (C) assessed the effects of the two dietary lipids on the promotion. Nine parameters have been analyzed and a new histologic grading method, adapted to rat tumors, has been applied in each carcinoma. High corn oil diets, particularly when acting as promoters, associated with higher-grade carcinomas than control (p < 0.05) and high olive oil groups. Stromal invasion and tumoral necrosis were more prominent and a prevailing cribriform pattern was observed (p < 0.05). High olive oil diet adenocarcinomas exhibited a predominantly low histologic grade and few necrotic and invasive areas, similar to the control, and they presented the highest percentage of papillary areas. Lymphoplasmacytic and mast cell infiltration were also influenced by the dietary lipids. Thus, high corn oil diet adenocarcinomas presented a higher degree of morphological malignancy than control and high olive oil tumors, which is in line with the greater clinical malignancy described in rats from the former group and the non-promoting effect of the high olive oil diet. As far as we are concerned, a similar histopathologic approach of the effects of the dietary lipids on experimental breast cancer has not been carried out up to now
Clin Nutr. 2004 Aug;23(4):673-81.: Sunflower oil does not protect against LDL oxidation as virgin olive oil does in patients with peripheral vascular disease.
Aguilera CM, Mesa MD, Ramirez-Tortosa MC, Nestares MT, Ros E, Gil A.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Facultad de Farmacia, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Granada, C/ Ramon y Cajal, 4, 18071, Granada, Spain.
agil@ugr.es

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the in vivo effects of a diet rich in virgin olive oil or sunflower oil on the lipid profile and on LDL susceptibility to oxidative modification in free-living Spanish male patients with peripheral vascular disease. METHODS: A total of 20 Spanish male subjects diagnosed with peripheral vascular disease were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10) receiving different supplements, virgin olive oil and sunflower oil for 4 months. RESULTS: The adaptation of patients to the experimental supplements was demonstrated since plasma and LDL fatty acids composition reflected dietary fatty acids. No differences in triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol concentrations were found between the groups of patients. A significantly higher LDL susceptibility to oxidation was observed after sunflower oil intake in comparison with virgin olive oil, in spite of an increase in LDL alpha-tocopherol concentration in sunflower oil group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study provide further evidence that sunflower-oil-enriched diets does not protect LDL against oxidation as virgin olive oil does in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.
Exp Gerontol. 2004 Aug;39(8):1189-98. : Dietary fat type (virgin olive vs. sunflower oils) affects age-related changes in DNA double-strand-breaks, antioxidant capacity and blood lipids in rats.
Quiles JL, Ochoa JJ, Ramirez-Tortosa C, Battino M, Huertas JR, Martin Y, Mataix J.
Department of Physiology, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Granada, C/Ramon y Cajal 4 Edificio Fray Luis, Granada 18071, Spain.
jlquiles@ugr.es

This study was designed to investigate the possible effect on DNA double-strand breaks, antioxidant capacity and blood lipids of feeding rats lifelong with two different dietary fat sources: virgin olive oil (rich in the monounsaturated oleic acid) or sunflower oil (rich in the polyunsaturated linoleic acid). No changes in mean or maximal lifespan were observed. Overall, aging led to increased levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, total lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and DNA double-strand breaks. All these parameters were higher in animals fed on sunflower oil diet. Aging diminished total antioxidant capacity with both diets, but in a lower extension for virgin olive oil diet. A very good inverse correlation (r= -0.715; P < 0.01, for sunflower oil group and r= -0.535; P < 0.01 for virgin olive oil group) between DNA damage and total antioxidant capacity was found. These results allow to conclude that dietary fat type should be considered in studies on aging, since the intake of oils with different polyunsaturation levels directly modulates total antioxidant capacity of plasma, DNA damage to peripheral blood lymphocytes and lead to important changes at the lipid metabolism level. In the present study best results were found after intake of virgin olive oil, which suggest the possible use of that edible oil to provide a healthier aging.
Br J Nutr. 2004 Jul;92(1):119-27.:s Olive oil and its main phenolic micronutrient (oleuropein) prevent inflammation-induced bone loss in the ovariectomised rat.
Puel C, Quintin A, Agalias A, Mathey J, Obled C, Mazur A, Davicco MJ, Lebecque P, Skaltsounis AL, Coxam V.
Unite des Maladies Metaboliques et Micronutriments, INRA Theix, 63122 Saint Genes-Champanelle, France.

The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of olive oil and its main polyphenol (oleuropein) in ovariectomised rats with or without inflammation. Rats (6 months old) were ovariectomised or sham-operated as control. Ovariectomised rats were separated into three groups receiving different diets for 3 months: a control diet with 25 g peanut oil and 25 g rapeseed oil/kg (OVX), the control diet with 50 g olive oil/kg or the control diet with 0.15 g oleuropein/kg. The sham-operated group was given the same control diet as OVX. Inflammation was induced 3 weeks before the end of the experiment by subcutaneous injections of talc (magnesium silicate) in one-half of each group. The success of ovariectomy was verified at necropsy by the atrophy of uterine horns. Inflammation, oleuropein or olive oil intakes did not have any uterotrophic activity, as they had had no effect on uterus weight. The plasma concentration of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (an indicator of inflammation) was increased in OVX rats with inflammation. With regard to bone variables, osteopenia in OVX was exacerbated by inflammation, as shown by a decrease in metaphyseal and total femoral mineral density. Both oleuropein and olive oil prevented this bone loss in OVX rats with inflammation. At necropsy, oleuropein and olive oil consumption had had no effect on plasma osteocalcin concentrations (marker of bone formation) or on urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion (marker of bone resorption). In conclusion, oleuropein and olive-oil feeding can prevent inflammation-induced osteopenia in OVX rats.
J Rheumatol. 2004 Jul;31(7):1310-9. :s The role of diet in susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.
Pattison DJ, Harrison RA, Symmons DP.
ARC Epidemiology Unit, Stopford Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom.
OBJECTIVE: Many studies have examined the role of diet in the management of established rheumatoid arthritis (RA), warranting several recent reviews. However, none have considered the possible link between diet and the onset of RA in detail. Studies investigated a possible effect of individual components of diet and the development of RA, but the lack of a systematic review means there is no unbiased assessment of the evidence. METHODS: We systematically reviewed studies with comparison groups that examined dietary intake or biological markers prior to the onset of RA. Four electronic databases were searched to identify relevant reports. Six quality criteria were agreed, against which the studies were assessed. The main outcome measure was a diagnosis of RA according to the ARA 1958 or revised ACR 1987 classification criteria. RESULTS: Fourteen reports were included in the review. There was evidence of a protective effect of higher consumption of olive oil, oil-rich fish, fruit, vegetables and beta-cryptoxanthin. Lower serum concentrations of antioxidants were associated with an increased risk of RA in 3 studies. Due to the heterogeneity of study designs and analyses, the results could not be pooled. CONCLUSION: Evidence exists that diet may play a role in the etiology of RA, but it is inconclusive due to the small number of studies available and variation in study design
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun;58(6):955-65. : Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols in humans: a review.
Vissers MN, Zock PL, Katan MB.
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the bioavailability and antioxidant effects of phenols from extra virgin olive oil. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the MEDLINE database for the years 1966-2002. To review the bioavailability of olive oil phenols, we selected animal and human studies that studied the absorption, metabolism, and urinary excretion of olive oil phenols. We also estimated the intake of the various phenols in the Mediterranean area. To review the antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols, we included human and animal studies on the effect of olive oil phenols on markers of oxidative processes in the body. We excluded studies without a proper control treatment and studies in which the antioxidant effects of phenols could not be disentangled from those of the fatty acid composition of olive oil. RESULTS: Bioavailability studies in humans show that the absorption of olive oil phenols is probably larger than 55-66 mol%, and that at least 5% is excreted in urine as tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. Animal studies suggest that phenol-rich olive oil lowers oxidisability of ex vivo low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles or lowers markers in urine of oxidative processes in the body. In five out of seven human studies, however, these effects of phenols were not found. There are no data on the phenol concentrations in plasma that are attainable by intake of olive oil. We estimated that 50 g of olive oil per day provides about 2 mg or approximately 13 micromol of hydroxytyrosol-equivalents per day, and that the plasma concentration of olive oil phenols with antioxidant potential resulting from such an intake can be at most 0.06 micromol/l. This is much lower than the minimum concentrations of these phenols (50-100 micromol) required to show antioxidant activity in vitro. CONCLUSION: Although phenols from olive oil seem to be well absorbed, the content of olive oil phenols with antioxidant potential in the Mediterranean diet is probably too low to produce a measurable effect on LDL oxidisability or other oxidation markers in humans. The available evidence does not suggest that consumption of phenols in the amounts provided by dietary olive oil will protect LDL against oxidative modification to any important extent.