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Canine and Feline Epilepsy
Possibly one percent of dogs and cats has been affected by epilepsy but some say as high as five percent. Most dogs with idiopathic epilepsy suffer their first seizure between their first and fifth year. Idiopathic means origin unknown. Some studies suggest with epilepsy in dogs there is a heredity link in some breeds which have a higher percentage of epilepsy.(Keeshond, cocker spaniels, Belgian tervuren, sheepdog, collies, German shepherds, golden retrievers, dachshunds, Irish setters, Labrador retrievers, miniature schnauzers, poodles, saint bernards, Siberian huskies and wire-haired terriers) Seizures are one of the symptoms of hypothryoidism. Toxic chemicals(such as sprays, preservatives may cause seizures and possibly overvaccination. Usual medications are Phenobarbital,Potassium Bromide,Phenobarbital and Potassium Bromide,Primidone (Mysoline),Valium (Diazepam),Dilantin, and Gabapentin. I have read that Skullcap and Valerian tablets also help
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Oct 15;221(8):1131-5. : Disposition and clinical use of bromide in cats.
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Boothe DM, George KL, Couch P.
Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station 77842, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To establish a dosing regimen for potassium bromide and evaluate use of bromide to treat spontaneous seizures in cats. DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective studies. ANIMALS: 7 healthy adult male cats and records of 17 cats with seizures. PROCEDURE: Seven healthy cats were administered potassium bromide (15 mg/kg [6.8 mg/lb], p.o., q 12 h) until steady-state concentrations were reached. Serum samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were obtained weekly until bromide concentrations were not detectable. Clinical data were obtained from records of 17 treated cats. RESULTS: In the prospective study, maximum serum bromide concentration was 1.1 +/- 0.2 mg/mL at 8 weeks. Mean disappearance half-life was 1.6 +/- 0.2 weeks. Steady state was achieved at a mean of 5.3 +/-1.1 weeks. No adverse effects were detected and bromide was well tolerated. In the retrospective study, administration of bromide (n = 4) or bromide and phenobarbital (3) was associated with eradication of seizures in 7 of 15 cats (serum bromide concentration range, 1.0 to 1.6 mg/mL); however, bromide administration was associated with adverse effects in 8 of 16 cats. Coughing developed in 6 of these cats, leading to euthanasia in 1 cat and discontinuation of bromide administration in 2 cats. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Therapeutic concentrations of bromide are attained within 2 weeks in cats that receive 30 mg/kg/d (13.6 mg/lb/d) orally. Although somewhat effective in seizure control, the incidence of adverse effects may not warrant routine use of bromide for control of seizures in cats.
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Oct 1;221(7):977-83.: Use of vagal nerve stimulation as a treatment for refractory epilepsy in dogs.
Munana KR, Vitek SM, Tarver WB, Saito M, Skeen TM, Sharp NJ, Olby NJ, Haglund MM
. Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27606, USA

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate safety and efficacy of vagal nerve stimulation in dogs with refractory epilepsy. DESIGN: Placebo-controlled, double-masked, crossover study. ANIMALS: 10 dogs with poorly controlled seizures. PROCEDURE: A programmable pacemaker-like device designed to deliver intermittent stimulation to the left cervical trunk of the vagus was surgically implanted in each dog. Dogs were assigned randomly to two 13-week test periods, 1 with nerve stimulation and 1 without nerve stimulation. Owners recorded data on seizure frequency, duration, and intensity, as well as adverse effects. RESULTS: No significant difference in seizure frequency, duration, or severity was detected between overall 13-week treatment and control periods. During the final 4 weeks of the treatment period, a significant decrease in mean seizure frequency (34.4%) was detected, compared with the control period. Complications included transient bradycardia, asystole, and apnea during intraoperative device testing, and seroma formation, subcutaneous migration of the generator, and transient Horner's syndrome during the 14-day period between surgery and suture removal. No adverse effects of stimulation were detected, and most owners were satisfied with the treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Vagal nerve stimulation is a potentially safe approach to seizure control that appears to be efficacious in certain dogs and should be considered a possible treatment option when antiepileptic medications are ineffective.
Ketogenic diet and canine epilepsy-does it help

Vet Rec. 2002 Jun 8;150(23):718-24. : Phenobarbitone concentrations in the hair, saliva and plasma of eight epileptic dogs.
Dunnett M, Littleford A, Lees P
. The Royal Veterinary College, Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Hatfield, Hertfordshire.

Samples of plasma, saliva and hair were collected from eight dogs receiving phenobarbitone for idiopathic epilepsy. The concentrations of phenobarbitone in hair and plasma were correlated with the daily dose rate, and the concentrations in hair were also correlated with the concentration in plasma, the dose rate of the drug over the preceding six months and the ratio of the six-month dose to body surface area. The concentration of phenobarbitone in saliva was not correlated with either the concentration in plasma or the dose rate of the drug.
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 May 15;220(10):1499-502. : Risk factors associated with development of seizures after use of iohexol for myelography in dogs: 182 cases (1998).
Barone G, Ziemer LS, Shofer FS, Steinberg SA.
Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia 19104, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of seizures after use of iohexol for myelography and identify associated risk factors in dogs. DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: 182 dogs that received iohexol for myelography in 1998. PROCEDURE: Medical records were reviewed for age, breed, sex, weight, dose and total volume of iohexol, injection site, number of injections, lesion type and location, total duration of anesthesia, duration from time of iohexol injection to recovery, presence and number of seizures, and whether surgery followed the myelogram. RESULTS: 39 (21.4%) dogs had at least 1 generalized seizure during or after myelography. Injection site was strongly associated with prevalence of seizures, and risk of seizure was significantly higher after cerebellomedullary injections, compared with lumbar injections. Mean total volume of iohexol administered to dogs that had seizures was significantly higher, compared with that administered to dogs that did not have seizures, although dosage did not differ between groups. Weight was significantly correlated with risk of seizure, and dogs that weighed > 20 kg (44 lb) had higher prevalence of seizures than dogs that weighed < 20 kg. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: It is preferential to administer iohexol via the L5-6 intervertebral space to minimize the risk of seizures. Higher prevalence of seizures in large dogs, compared with smaller dogs, may be caused by administration of larger total volumes of contrast agent per volume of CSF.
J Vet Intern Med. 2002 May-Jun;16(3):262-8. : A cross-sectional study of epilepsy in Danish Labrador Retrievers: prevalence and selected risk factors.
Berendt M, Gredal H, Pedersen LG, Alban L, Alving J.
Department of Clinical Sciences, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
meb@kvl.dk

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and selected risk factors of epilepsy, the proportion of dogs with epilepsy in remission, and the types of seizures in Danish Labrador Retrievers. A prospective cross-sectional study of epilepsy was conducted in 1999-2000. The study was carried out in 2 phases in a reference population consisting of 29,602 individuals. In phase 1, 550 dogs were selected by random sampling stratified by year of birth. A telephone interview was used to identify dogs with possible epilepsy. In phase 2, dogs judged during phase 1 as possibly suffering from epilepsy were further subjected to physical and neurologic examination, CBC, blood chemistry, and a questionnaire on seizure phenomenology. Seventeen dogs were diagnosed with epilepsy, yielding a prevalence of 3.1% (95% CI 1.6-4.6%) in the Danish population of Labrador Retrievers. A diagnosis of epilepsy was 6 times more probable in dogs >4 years (born before 1995) than in younger dogs (born between 1995 and 1999) (P = .004, relative risk = 6.5). No significant difference in risk between genders was observed, nor could any effect of neutering be proven statistically. The frequencies of primary generalized seizures and partial seizures (with or without secondary generalization) were 24 and 70%, respectively. The type of seizures could not be classified in 6%. In conclusion, the 3.1% prevalence of epilepsy in Danish Labrador Retrievers is higher than the 1% prevalence of epilepsy described in the general canine population, establishing that this breed is at increased risk.
J Hered. 2003 Jan-Feb;94(1):57-63. : The genetics of epilepsy in the belgian tervuren and sheepdog.
Oberbauer AM, Grossman DI, Irion DN, Schaffer AL, Eggleston ML, Famula TR.
Department of Animal Science (Oberbauer, Grossman, and Famula) and the Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, University of California, Davis, California (Irion, Schaffer, and Eggleston).

Idiopathic epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizure activity without an identifiable underlying anatomic defect. Dogs experiencing repeated bouts of severe seizures are given therapeutic medication to control their frequency and severity. Idiopathic epilepsy has been reported in many dog breeds and was identified as the predominant health issue facing dog breeds in a recent survey by the American Kennel Club. A growing body of evidence supports a hereditary basis for idiopathic epilepsy, with a variety of genetic inheritance models proposed. In the Belgian tervuren and sheepdog, epilepsy is highly heritable with a polygenic mode of inheritance, though apparently influenced by a single autosomal recessive locus of large effect. In an effort to establish molecular linkage between the epileptic phenotype and the locus of large effect, we have screened genomic DNA from families of affected tervuren and sheepdogs with 100 widely dispersed, polymorphic canine microsatellite markers (0.595 average PIC value). Although not significant (LOD scores <3.0), three genomic regions have shown nominal linkage between markers and the epileptic phenotype. Additional related dogs are being screened with these and additional markers to increase the power to detect the presence of a linked locus
J Small Anim Pract. 2002 Apr;43(4):151-3. : Canine status epilepticus: a retrospective study of 50 cases.
Platt SR, Haag M.
Centre for Small Animal Studies, Animal Health Trust, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk, UK.

The medical records of 50 dogs that exhibited generalised convulsive tonic-clonic (GCTC) status epilepticus (SE) were reviewed and compared with the records of 50 dogs that exhibited non-SE GCTC seizures. The mean age, bodyweight and gender of the patients in both groups were not significantly different. Dogs in the non-SE group were two times more likely to be an idiopathic epileptic than to have secondary epileptic seizures. The SE group was more likely to have abnormalities on cerebrospinal fluid analysis, but not more likely to have abnormalities detected on computed tomography, when compared with the non-SE group. SE was 1.57 times more likely if the cause for the seizures was secondary or reactive epilepsy rather than idiopathic or primary epilepsy. In conclusion, dogs that exhibit SE should be thoroughly investigated for secondary causes.
: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Mar 15;220(6):781-4. : Results of cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neurologic examination findings, and age at the onset of seizures as predictors for results of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in dogs examined because of seizures: 115 cases (1992-2000).
Bush WW, Barr CS, Darrin EW, Shofer FS, Vite CH, Steinberg SA.
Department of Neurology, Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neurologic examination findings, results of CSF analysis, or age at the onset of seizures could be used to predict whether results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would be normal or abnormal in dogs with seizures. DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: 115 dogs. PROCEDURE: Information on results of neurologic examination, results of CSF analysis, age at the onset of seizures, and results of MRI was obtained from the medical records. RESULTS: Results of MRI were abnormal in 61 dogs and normal in 54. Sensitivity and specificity of neurologic examination alone were 77 (47/61) and 91% (49/54), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CSF analysis alone were 79 (48/61) and 69% (37/54), respectively. Results of MRI were abnormal for 12 of 28 (43%) dogs with abnormal CSF analysis results and normal neurologic examination results but for only 2 of 35 (6%) dogs with normal CSF analysis and normal neurologic examination results. Similarly, results of MRI were abnormal for 36 of 37 (97%) dogs with abnormal CSF analysis and abnormal neurologic examination results but for only 11 of 15 (73%) dogs with normal CSF analysis results and abnormal neurologic examination results. Age at the onset of seizures (< 6 vs > or = 6 years old) was not significantly associated with results of MRI. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that neurologic examination findings and results of CSF analysis are useful in predicting whether results of MRI will be abnormal in dogs examined because of seizures, but age at the onset of seizures is not.
Novartis Found Symp. 2002;243:213-26; discussion 226-30, 231-5. : OC144-093, a novel P glycoprotein inhibitor for the enhancement of anti-epileptic therapy.
Newman MJ, Dixon R, Toyonaga B.
Ontogen Corporation, Carlsbad, CA 92009, USA.

Inhibitors of P gLycoprotein (Pgp) may be useful for the enhancement of blood-brain barrier penetration of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Due to polypharmacy and the need for chronic treatment, Pgp inhibitors used in epilepsy should be highly specific and non-toxic. In particular, it may be essential to use compounds that produce minimal inhibition of enzymes involved in metabolism of AEDs and other drugs used by epilepsy patients. OC144-093 is a novel substituted diarylimidazole generated using the OntoBLOCK system, a solid-phase combinatorial chemistry technology, in combination with high-throughput cell-based screening. The compound is an extremely potent inhibitor of Pgp-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer with an average FC50 of 32 nM, but does not inhibit multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1). OC144-093 is the least non-specifically toxic Pgp inhibitor described to date, with an average cytostatic IC50 of >60 microM in 15 cell types. It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450s CYP3A4, 2C8 or 2C9 enzymes involved in AED metabolism. OC144-093 does not produce a pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction with paclitaxel and has exhibited an excellent PK and safety profile in phase I clinical trials. Our results suggest that OC144-093 may represent an ideal candidate for use in enhancement of AED blood-brain barrier penetration.
: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001 Sep 1;219(5):618-23. : Risk factors for development of status epilepticus in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and effects of status epilepticus on outcome and survival time: 32 cases (1990-1996).
Saito M, Munana KR, Sharp NJ, Olby NJ.
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27606, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for episodes of status epilepticus (SE) in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and determine how SE affects long-term outcome and survival time. DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: 32 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. PROCEDURE: Information on signalment, seizure onset, initiation of treatment, anticonvulsants administered, number of episodes of SE, overall seizure control, and long-term outcome was obtained from medical records and through telephone interviews. Differences between dogs that did and did not have episodes of SE were evaluated statistically. RESULTS: 19 (59%) dogs had 1 or more episodes of SE. Body weight was the only variable significantly different between dogs that did and did not have episodes of SE. Thirteen dogs (9 that did not have episodes of SE and 4 that did) were still alive at the time of the study and were > or = 10 years old. Six of the 19 (32%) dogs that had episodes of SE died of causes directly attributed to the seizure disorder. Mean life spans of dogs that did and did not have episodes of SE were 8.3 and 11.3 years, respectively. Survival time was significantly different between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that a substantial percentage of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy will have episodes of SE. Dogs with greater body weights were more likely to have episodes of SE, and early appropriate seizure treatment did not appear to decrease the risk that dogs would have episodes. Most dogs with idiopathic epilepsy had an expected life span, but survival time was shorter for dogs that had episodes of SE.
Am J Vet Res. 2001 Aug;62(8):1198-206. : Heritability estimations for diseases, coat color, body weight, and height in a birth cohort of Boxers.
Nielen AL, Janss LL, Knol BW.
Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands.

OBJECTIVE: To obtain heritability estimates for diseases and characteristics in Boxers. ANIMALS: Birth cohort of 2,929 purebred Boxers from 414 litters. PROCEDURE: Heritability estimates were determined for cheiloschisis-palatoschisis, cryptorchidism, epilepsy, stifle disorders, cardiac disorders, coat color, birth weight, and adult weight, and height. Binary traits were analyzed by use of a mixed-effects probit model. Some traits also were analyzed by use of a model that postulated monogenic inheritance. Full pedigree analyses were performed. Variation in incidences of disease among clusters of related dogs was evaluated. RESULTS: Heritability estimates were virtually zero for cardiac disorders, medium (0.17 to 0.36) for most other traits, and high (> 0.55) for coat color, birth weight, and adult height. Litter effects and risk factors affected cheiloschisis-palatoschisis, heart murmur, coat color, broadly defined epilepsy, and adult weight. Litter effects may be attributable to common environmental effects for littermates but also may be attributable to dominance variation caused by a recessive gene. Heritability estimates increased when stricter definitions for epilepsy and stifle disorders were used. The monogenic model did not reveal higher heritability estimates for 6 traits analyzed. Incidences for white coat differed significantly for 10 familial clusters, confirming high heritability and effects of familial lineage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicate that genetic improvement of most traits should be feasible, except for cardiac disorders. However, because most traits are influenced by environmental effects as well as genetic effects, genetic counseling based on polygenic inheritance and use of familial information rather than strict exclusion of parents is preferred.
J Small Anim Pract. 2001 Aug;42(8):403-8. : Treatment of partial seizures and seizure-like activity with felbamate in six dogs.
Ruehlmann D, Podell M, March P.
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA.

Six dogs with partial seizures or partial seizure-like activity were treated with the antiepileptic drug felbamate between 1993 and 1998. All dogs had a history and results of diagnostic testing suggestive of either primary (idiopathic) or occult secondary epilepsy. Dogs ranged between four months and eight years of age at the onset of seizure activity. The median time period between onset of the first seizure and the start of felbamate therapy was 3.8 months (range 0.75 to 36 months). Median duration of therapy was nine months (range two to 22 months). All dogs experienced a reduction in seizure frequency after felbamate administration. Median total number of seizures post-treatment was two (range 0 to 9). Two dogs had an immediate and prolonged cessation of seizure activity. Steady-state trough serum felbamate concentrations measured at two weeks, and one, 12 and 22 months after the commencement of therapy in four dogs ranged between 13 and 55 mg/litre (median 35 mg/litre). Reversible haematological adverse effects were detected in two dogs, with one dog developing concurrent keratoconjunctivitis sicca. These results suggest that felbamate can be an effective antiepileptic drug without life-threatening complications when used as monotherapy for partial seizures in the dog.
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001 Jun 15;218(12):1946-8, 1936. : Succimer for treatment of lead toxicosis in two cats.
Knight TE, Kent M, Junk JE.
Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA.

Two cats from a single household were examined because of neurologic abnormalities suggestive of central vestibular disease. The owner had been renovating her 150-year-old house for the preceding 3 months, and renovations included chipping and sanding of old paint from windowsills and stair railings. Lead toxicosis was diagnosed on the basis of history and concentrations of lead in blood and urine. Both cats were treated with succimer. Treatment was not associated with any adverse effects, and both cats recovered completely. Ingestion of old paint from house renovations is the most common source of lead exposure in cats. Owners of cats with gastrointestinal tract or neurologic abnormalities should be questioned specifically about house renovations
Brain Res. 2001 Feb 16;892(1):147-65. : Long-lasting effects of feline amygdala kindling on monoamines, seizures and sleep.
Shouse MN, Staba RJ, Saquib SF, Farber PR.
Department of Veterans Affairs, Greater Los Angeles Health Care System (151A3), Sepulveda, CA 91343, USA.
nshouse@ucla.edu

This report describes the relationship between monoamines, sleep and seizures before and 1-month after amygdala kindling in young cats (<1 year old; n=8; six female and two male). Concentrations (fmoles of norepinephrine or NE, dopamine or DA and serotonin or 5-HT) were quantified in consecutive, 5-min microdialysis samples (2 microl/min infusion rate) from amygdala and locus ceruleus complex (LC) during four, 6-8-h polygraphic recordings before (n=2) and 1 month post-kindling (n=2); 5-min recording epochs were temporally adjusted to correspond to dialysate samples and differentiated according to dominant sleep or waking state (lasting > or =80% of 5-min epoch) and degree of spontaneous seizure activity (number and duration of focal versus generalized spikes and spike trains and behavioral seizure correlates). Post-kindling records in each cat were divided into two groups (n=1 record each) based on higher or lower spontaneous EEG and behavioral seizure activity and compared to pre-kindling records. We found: (1) before and after kindling, NE and 5-HT but not DA concentrations were significantly lower in sleep than waking at both sites; (2) after kindling, each cat showed cyclic patterns, as follows: (a) higher NE, 5-HT and DA concentrations accompanied increased seizure activity with delayed sleep onset latency and increased sleep fragmentation (reduced sleep state percentages, number of epochs and/or epoch duration) in one recording versus (b) lower monoaminergic concentrations accompanied reduced seizure activity, rapid sleep onset and reduced sleep disruption in the other recording. The alternating, post-kindling pattern suggested "rebound" effects which could explain some controversies in the literature about chronic effects of kindling on monoamines and sleep-waking state patterns.
J Small Anim Pract. 2000 Nov;41(11):496-9. : Propofol for treatment of refractory seizures in dogs and a cat with intracranial disorders.
Steffen F, Grasmueck S.
Clinic for Small Animal Surgery, Neurology Section, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Twelve dogs and one cat that were presented with seizures due to various disorders of intracranial origin were treated with one or several boluses of propofol (2 to 8 mg/kg). All the animals had received previous medication, including diazepam alone or in combination with phenobarbital and/or pentobarbital. Seizure control with prevention of further convulsions was achieved in 11 patients. In one dog, seizures kept recurring after periods of successful control following administration of propofol. Another dog with continuing seizures resistant to barbiturate therapy died following administration of propofol. This retrospective study suggests that propofol may be an effective drug in controlling status epilepticus resistant to conventional medication and may be used as an alternative to pentobarbital administration.
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000 Sep 15;217(6):847-52. : Effects of diet on pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in healthy dogs
. Maguire PJ, Fettman MJ, Smith MO, Greco DS, Turner AS, Walton JA, Ogilvie GK.
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of various diets on the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital and the interactive effects of changes in body composition and metabolic rate. DESIGN: Prospective study. ANIMALS: 27 healthy sexually intact adult female Beagles. PROCEDURE: Pharmacokinetic studies of phenobarbital were performed before and 2 months after dogs were fed 1 of 3 diets (group 1, maintenance diet; group 2, protein-restricted diet; group 3, fat- and protein-restricted diet) and treated with phenobarbital (approx 3 mg/kg [1.4 mg/lb] of body weight, p.o., q 12 h). Pharmacokinetic studies involved administering phenobarbital (15 mg/kg [6.8 mg/lb], i.v.) and collecting blood samples at specific intervals for 240 hours. Effects of diet and time were determined by repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Volume of distribution, mean residence time, and half-life (t1/2) of phenobarbital significantly decreased, whereas clearance rate and elimination rate significantly increased with time in all groups. Dietary protein or fat restriction induced significantly greater changes: t1/2 (hours) was lower in groups 2 (mean +/- SD; 25.9 +/- 6.10 hours) and 3 (24.0 +/- 4.70) than in group 1 (32.9 +/- 5.20). Phenobarbital clearance rate (ml/kg/min) was significantly higher in group 3 (0.22 +/- 0.05 ml/kg/min) than in groups 1 (0.17 +/- 0.03) or 2 (0.18 +/- 0.03). Induction of serum alkaline phosphatase activity (U/L) was greater in groups 2 (192.4 +/- 47.5 U/L) and 3 (202.0 +/- 98.2) than in group 1 (125.0 +/- 47.5). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Clinically important differences between diet groups were observed regarding pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital, changes in CBC and serum biochemical variables, and body composition. Drug dosage must be reevaluated if a dog's diet, body weight, or body composition changes during treatment. Changes in blood variables that may indicate liver toxicosis caused by phenobarbital may be amplified by diet-drug interactions
J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Aug;23(4):243-9. :Changes in serum thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in epileptic dogs receiving phenobarbital for one year.
Gaskill CL, Burton SA, Gelens HC, Ihle SL, Miller JB, Shaw DH, Brimacombe MB, Cribb AE.
Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada.

A multicentric prospective study was conducted to monitor the effect of phenobarbital on serum total thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in epileptic dogs. Serum T4 concentrations were determined for 22 epileptic dogs prior to initiation of phenobarbital therapy (time 0), and 3 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after the start of phenobarbital. Median T4 concentration was significantly lower at 3 weeks and 6 months compared to time 0. Thirty-two percent of dogs had T4 concentrations below the reference range at 6 and 12 months. Nineteen of the 22 dogs had serum TSH concentrations determined at all sampling times. A significant upward trend in median TSH concentration was found. No associations were found between T4 concentration, dose of phenobarbital, or serum phenobarbital concentration. No signs of overt hypothyroidism were evident in dogs with low T4, with one exception. TSH stimulation tests were performed on six of seven dogs with low T4 concentrations at 12 months, and all but one had normal responses. In conclusion, phenobarbital therapy decreased serum T4 concentration but did not appear to cause clinical signs of hypothyroidism. Serum TSH concentrations and TSH stimulation tests suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is functioning appropriately.

  • Ask Dr.Schoen- a natural approach to seizures in dogs and cats
  • www.canine-epilepsy-guardian-angels-best resource I have found-also has articles by Dr.Jean Dodds,Clemons,Wynn
  • Dr.Susan Wynne-epilepsy
  • feline-epilepsy
  • potassium bromide-old anticonvulsant
  • alternative links for epilepsy-
  • seizures in dogs-Podell
  • seizure disorders-mar vista vet
  • seizure disorders
  • idiopathic epilepsy-Dr.Belfield
  • Gi Joe's epilepsy resources
  • holistic approach